Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 1–17 | Cite as

Cognitive structures, cognitive processes, and cognitive-behavior modification: I. client issues

  • Dennis C. Turk
  • Peter Salovey

Abstract

Experimental research on cognitive structures and cognitive processes has important implications for the practice of cognitive-behavior modification. The concept of schemata, knowledge structures that guide cognitive processing, is introduced. Self-schemata, particularly important in the maintenance of maladaptive behavior patterns, are described and related to the construct of self-efficacy. Following this discussion, various cognitive processes, particularly shortcomings in human judgment arising from these cognitive structures (e.g., selective attention, confirmatory biases, egocentric biases, availability and representativeness heuristics, and illusory correlation) are presented. Similarly, research on the interaction of affect and cognition as well as research on metacognition is noted.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abelson, R. P. (1981). Psychological status of the script concept.American Psychologist, 36 715–729.Google Scholar
  2. Alloy, L., & Abramson, L. (1979). Judgment of contingency in depressed and nondepressed students: Sadder but wiser?Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 108 441–485.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1977a). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1977b). Self-efficacy: Toward a unified theory of behavior change.Psychological Review, 84 191–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (1978). The self in reciprocal determinism.American Psychologist, 33 344–358.Google Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1979, April). Self-efficacy: An integrative construct. Invited address presented at the meeting of the Western Psychological Association, San Diego.Google Scholar
  7. Bandura, A., Adams, N. E., & Beyer, J. (1977). Cognitive processes mediating behavioral change.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35 125–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bartlett, F. C. (1932).Remembering. London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bower, G. H. (1978). Contacts of cognitive psychology with social learning theory.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2 123–146.Google Scholar
  10. Bower, G. H. (1981). Mood and memory.American Psychologist, 36 129–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bradley, G. W. (1978). Self-serving biases in the attribution process: A reexamination of the fact or fiction question.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36 56–71.Google Scholar
  12. Brockner, J. (1979). Self-esteem, self-consciousness, and task performance: Relations, extensions, and possible explanations.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37 447–461.Google Scholar
  13. Bruner, J. S. (1959). Going beyond the information given. In H. Gruger (Ed.),Contemporary approaches to cognition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Cantor, N., & Mischel, W. (1979). Prototypes in person perception. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.),Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 12). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  15. Easterbrook, J. A. (1959). The effect of emotion on cue utilization and the organization of behavior.Psychological Review, 69 183–201.Google Scholar
  16. Einhorn, H. J., & Hogarth, R. M. (1978). Confidence in judgment: Persistence of the illusion of validity.Psychological Review, 85 395–416.Google Scholar
  17. Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry.American Psychologist, 34 906–911.Google Scholar
  18. Garber, J., & Hollon, S. D. (1980). Universal versus personal helplessness in depression: Belief in uncontrollability or incompetence?Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89 56–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Goldfried, M. R., & Robins, C. (1983). Self-schemas, cognitive bias, and the processing of learning experiences. In P. C. Kendall (Ed.),Advances in cognitive-behavioral research and therapy (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  20. Greenwald, A. G. (1980). The totalitarian ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history.American Psychologist, 35 603–618.Google Scholar
  21. Isen, A. M. (1984). Toward understanding the role of affect in cognition. In R. S. Wyer and T. K. Srull (Eds.),Handbook of social cognition, Vol. 3 (pp. 179–236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  22. Isen, A. M., Shalker, T. E., Clark, M., & Karp, L. (1978). Affect, accessibility of material in memory, and behavior: A cognitive loop?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Janoff-Bulman, R., & Wortman, C. B. (1977). Attributions of blame and coping in the “real world”: Severe accident victims react to their lot.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35 351–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kanfer, F. H. (1978). Self-management: Strategies and tactics. In A. P. Goldstein & F. H. Kanfer (Eds.),Maximizing treatment gains. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  25. Klein, D. C., Fencil-Morse, E., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1976). Learned helplessness, depression and the attribution of failure.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33 508–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kovacs, M., & Beck, A. T. (1978). Maladaptive cognitive structures in depression.American Journal of Psychiatry, 135 525–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kuiper, N. A. (1978).The self as an agent in the processing of personal information about others. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Calgary.Google Scholar
  28. Kuiper, N. A., & Derry, P. A. (1981). The self as a cognitive prototype: An application to person perception and depression. In N. Cantor & J. F. Kihlstrom (Eds.),Personality, social interaction and cognition. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  29. Landau, R. J. (1980). The role of semantic schemata in phobic word interpretation.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 4 427–434.Google Scholar
  30. Langer, E. J. (1975). The illusion of control.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32 311–329.Google Scholar
  31. Lewinsohn, P. M., Mischel, W., Chaplin, W., & Barton, R. (1980). Social competence and depression: The role of illusory self-perceptions.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89 203–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Lloyd, G. G., & Lishman, W. A. (1975). Effects of depression on speed of recall of pleasant and unpleasant experiences.Psychological Medicine, 5 173–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Mahoney, M. (1974).Cognition and behavior modification. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  34. Mahoney, M. (1977). Reflections on the cognitive-learning trend in psychotherapy.American Psychologist, 32 5–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Mahoney, M. J., & Arnkoff, D. B. (1978). Cognitive and self-control therapies. In S. L. Garfield & A. E. Bergin (Eds.),Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  36. Mahoney, M. J., & Thoresen, C. E. (1974).Self-control: Power to the person. Monterey, California: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  37. Markus, H. (1977). Self-schemata and processing information about the self.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35 63–78.Google Scholar
  38. Meichenbaum, D. H. (1977).Cognitive behavior modification: An integrative approach. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  39. Meichenbaum, D., & Asarnow, J. (1979). Cognitive-behavior modification and metacognitive development: Implications for the classroom. In P. C. Kendall & S. D. Hollon (Eds.),Cognitive-behavioral interventions: Theory, research and procedures. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  40. Merluzzi, T. V., Rudy, T. E., & Glass, C. R. (1981). The information-processing paradigm: Implications for clinical science. In T. V. Merluzzi, C. R. Glass & M. Genest (Eds.),Cognitive assessment. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  41. Miller, D. T., & Ross, M. (1975). Self-serving biases in the attribution of causality. Fact or fiction?Psychological Bulletin, 82 213–225.Google Scholar
  42. Miller, W. R., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1976). Learned helplessness, depression and the perception of reinforcement.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 14 7–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Mischel, W. (1973). Toward a cognitive social learning reconceptualization of personality.Psychological Review, 80 252–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Mischel, W., Ebbesen, E. B., & Zeiss, A. M. (1976). Determinants of selective memory about the self.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44 92–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Mueller, J. H. (1979). Anxiety and encoding processes in memory.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 5 288–294.Google Scholar
  46. Nisbett, R. E., & Ross, L. D. (1980).Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of informal judgment. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  47. Postman, L., & Brown, D. R. (1952). The perceptual consequences of success and failure.Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 47 213–221.Google Scholar
  48. Ross, L. (1977). The intuitive psychologist and his shortcomings: Distortions in the attribution process. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.),Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 10). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  49. Ross, L., Greene, D., & House, P. (1977). The false consensus phenomenon: An attributional bias in self-perception and social perception processes.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13 279–301.Google Scholar
  50. Ross, L., Lepper, M. R., Strack, F., & Steinmetz, J. (1977). Social explanations and social expectations: Effects of real and hypothetical explanations on subjective likelihood.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35 817–829.Google Scholar
  51. Roth, D., & Rehm, L. P. (1980). Relationships among self-monitoring processes, memory and depression.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 4 149–157.Google Scholar
  52. Rothbart, M., Evans, M., & Fulero, S. (1979). Recall for confirming events: Memory processes and the maintenance of social stereotypes.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 15 343–355.Google Scholar
  53. Rubovits, P. C., & Maehr, M. L. (1973). Pygmalion black and white.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 25 210–218.Google Scholar
  54. Sarason, I. G. (1975). Anxiety and self-preoccupation. In I. G. Sarason & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.),Stress and anxietey (Vol. 2). Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  55. Schwartz, R. M., & Gottman, J. M. (1976). Toward a task analysis of assertive behavior.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44 910–920.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Snyder, M., & Cantor, N. (1979). Testing hypotheses about other people: The use of historical knowledge.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 15 330–342.Google Scholar
  57. Snyder, M., & Swann, W. B. (1978a). Behavioral confirmation in socal interaction: From social perception to social reality.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 14 148–162.Google Scholar
  58. Snyder, M., & Swann, W. B. (1978b). Hypothesis testing processes in social interaction.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36 1202–1212.Google Scholar
  59. Snyder, M., Tanke, E. D., & Berscheid, E. (1977). Social perception and interpersonal behavior: On the self-fulfiling nature of social stereotypes.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35 656–666.Google Scholar
  60. Swann, W. B., Jr., & Read, S. J. (1981). Self-verification processes: How we sustain our self-conceptions.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 17 351–372.Google Scholar
  61. Taylor, S. E. (1982). Social cognition and health.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8 549–562.Google Scholar
  62. Taylor, S. E., & Crocker, J. (1981). Schematic bases of social information processing. In E. T. Higgins, C. P. Herman, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.),Social cognition: The Ontario symposium in personality and social psychology. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  63. Teasdale, J. D., & Fogarty, S. J. (1979). Differential effects of induced mood on retrieval of pleasant and unpleasant events from episodic memory.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88 248–257.Google Scholar
  64. Tsujimoto, R. N. (1978). Memory bias toward normative and novel trait prototypes.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36 1391–1401.Google Scholar
  65. Tsujimoto, R. N., Wilde, J., & Robertson, D. R. (1978). Distorted memory for exemplars of a social situation: Evidence for schematic memory processes.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36 1402–1414.Google Scholar
  66. Turk, D. C. (1979). Factors influencing the adaptive process with chronic illness. In I. G. Sarason & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.),Stress and anxiety (Vol. 6). Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  67. Turk, D. C., & Salovey, P. (1985). Cognitive structures, cognitive processes, and cognitive-behavior modification: II. Judgments and inferences of the clinician.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9 19–33.Google Scholar
  68. Turk, D. C., & Speers, M. A. (1983). Cognitive schemata and cognitive processes in cognitive-behavioral interventions: Going beyond the information given. In P. C. Kendall (Ed.),Advances in cognitive-behavioral research and therapy (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  69. Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1973). Availability: A heuristic for judging frequency and probability.Cognitive Psychology, 5 207–232.Google Scholar
  70. Wine, J. (1981). Cognitive-attentional theory of test anxiety. In I. G. Sarason (Ed.),Test anxiety: Theory, research, and applications. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  71. Zanna, M. P., & Pack, S. J. (1975). On the self-fulfilling nature of apparent sex differences in behavior.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 11 583–591.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dennis C. Turk
    • 1
  • Peter Salovey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations