Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 383–395 | Cite as

Cognitive self-statements in depression: Development of an automatic thoughts questionnaire

  • Steven D. Hollon
  • Philip C. Kendall


A 30-item questionnaire was devised to measure the frequency of occurrence of automatic negative thoughts (negative self-statements)associated with depression. Male and female undergraduates were asked to recall dysphoric experiences and to report associated cognitions. One hundred representative cognitions were selected and administered to a second sample, along with the MMPI D scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. Thirty items discriminating between criterion groups of psychometrically depressed and nondepressed subjects were identified. The resultant 30-item automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ-30)was cross-validated and found to significantly discriminate psychometrically depressed from nondepressed criterion groups. No differences were found between males and females on the measure. Factor analysis indicated a four-factor solution, with a large first factor reflecting Personal Maladjustment, a second factor indicative of Negative Self-Concept and Negative Expectations, and two lesser factors. The ATQ-30 may provide a means of testing basic theory relating cognitive content to behavioral and affective processes and assessing change in cognitions associated with experimental manipulation or psychotherapeutic intervention.


Depression Cognitive Content Beck Depression Inventory Experimental Manipulation Criterion Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven D. Hollon
    • 1
  • Philip C. Kendall
    • 1
  1. 1.Cognitive Assessment Project, Department of PsychologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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