Advertisement

Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 383–395 | Cite as

Cognitive self-statements in depression: Development of an automatic thoughts questionnaire

  • Steven D. Hollon
  • Philip C. Kendall
Article

Abstract

A 30-item questionnaire was devised to measure the frequency of occurrence of automatic negative thoughts (negative self-statements)associated with depression. Male and female undergraduates were asked to recall dysphoric experiences and to report associated cognitions. One hundred representative cognitions were selected and administered to a second sample, along with the MMPI D scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. Thirty items discriminating between criterion groups of psychometrically depressed and nondepressed subjects were identified. The resultant 30-item automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ-30)was cross-validated and found to significantly discriminate psychometrically depressed from nondepressed criterion groups. No differences were found between males and females on the measure. Factor analysis indicated a four-factor solution, with a large first factor reflecting Personal Maladjustment, a second factor indicative of Negative Self-Concept and Negative Expectations, and two lesser factors. The ATQ-30 may provide a means of testing basic theory relating cognitive content to behavioral and affective processes and assessing change in cognitions associated with experimental manipulation or psychotherapeutic intervention.

Keywords

Depression Cognitive Content Beck Depression Inventory Experimental Manipulation Criterion Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P., & Teasdale, J. D. Learned helplesness in humans: Critique and reformulation.Journal of Abnormal Psychology 1978,87 49–74.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.Psychological Review 1977,84 191–215.Google Scholar
  3. Beck, A. T. Thinking and depression: I. Idiosyncratic content and cognitive distortions.Archives of General Psychiatry 1963,9 324–333.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, A. T. Thinking and depression: II. Theory and therapy.Archives of General Psychiatry 1964,10 561–571.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, A. T.Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York: Hoeber, 1967.Google Scholar
  6. Beck, A. T.Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  7. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G.Cognitive therapy of depression: A treatment manual. New York: Guilford Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  8. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. An inventory for measuring depression.Archives of General Psychiatry 1961,4 561–571.Google Scholar
  9. Bumberry, W., Oliver, J. M., & McClure, J. N. Validation of the Beck Inventory in a university population using psychiatric estimate as the criterion.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1978,46 150–155.Google Scholar
  10. Depue, R. A., & Monroe, S. M. The unipolar-bipolar distinction in the depressive disorders.Journal of Abnormal Psychology 1978,87 3–20.Google Scholar
  11. Ellis, A. E.Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Lyle Stuart, 1962.Google Scholar
  12. Ellis, A., & Grieger, R.Handbook of rational-emotive therapy. New York. Springer, 1977.Google Scholar
  13. Goldfried, M. R., & Davison, G. C.Clinical behavior therapy. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1976.Google Scholar
  14. Goldfried, M. R., & Sobocinski, D. Effect of irrational beliefs on emotional arousal.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1975,43 504–510.Google Scholar
  15. Hathaway, S. R., & McKinley, J. C. The measurement of symptomatic depression with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Schedule.Psychological Bulletin 1940,37 425.Google Scholar
  16. Hollon, S. D., & Beck, A. T. Cognitive therapy of depression. In P. C. Kendall & S. D. Hollon (Eds.),Cognitive-behavioral interventions: Theory, research, and procedures. New York: Academic Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  17. Jones, R. G.A factored measure of Ellis' irrational belief system. Wichita, Kansas: Test Systems, 1968.Google Scholar
  18. Kendall, P. C., & Hollon, S. D. (Eds.).Cognitive-behavioral interventions: Theory, research, and procedures. New York: Academic Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  19. Kendall, P. C., & Hollon, S. D. Assessing self-referent speech: Methods in the measurement of self-statements. In P. C. Kendall and S. D. Hollon (Eds.),Assessment strategies for cognitive-behavioral intervention. New York: Academic Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  20. Kendall, P. C., & Korgeski, G. P. Assessment and cognitive-behavioral interventions.Cognitive Therapy and Research 1979,3 1–21.Google Scholar
  21. Kendall, P. C., Williams, L., Pechacek, T. F., Graham, L. E., Shesslak, C., & Herzoff, N. Cognitive-behavioral and patient education interventions in cardiac catheterization procedures: The Palo Alto medical psychology project.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1979,47 49–58.Google Scholar
  22. Kuder, G. F., & Richardson, M. W. The theory of estimation of test reliability.Psychometrika 1937,2 151–160.Google Scholar
  23. Mahoney, M.Cognition and behavior modification. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Ballinger, 1974.Google Scholar
  24. Mahoney, M. Reflections on the cognitive-learning trend in psychotherapy.American Psychologist 1977,32 5–13.Google Scholar
  25. Meichenbaum, D.Cognitive-behavior modification. New York: Plenum, 1977.Google Scholar
  26. Nelson, R. E. Irrational beliefs in depression.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1977,45 1190–1191.Google Scholar
  27. Rehm, L. P. Assessment of depression. In M. Hersen & A. Bellack (Eds.),Behavioral assessment: A practical handbook. New York: Pergamon Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  28. Robins, E., & Guze, S. B. Classification of affective disorders: The primary-scondary, the endogenous-reactive, and the neurotic-psychotic concepts. In T. A. Williams, M. M. Katz, & J. A. Shields (Eds.),Recent advances in psychobiology of the depressive illnesses. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government printing Office, 1972.Google Scholar
  29. Rush, A. J., Beck, A. T., Kovacs, M., & Hollon, S. D. Comparative efficacy of cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of depressed outpatients.Cognitive Therapy and Research 1977,1 17–37.Google Scholar
  30. Schwartz, R. M., & Gottman, J. M. Toward a task analysis of assertive behavior.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1976,44 910–920.Google Scholar
  31. Shaw, B. F. Comparison of cognitive therapy and behavior therapy in the treatment of depresion.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1977,45 543–551.Google Scholar
  32. Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E.Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Self-Evaluation Questionnaire). Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  33. Taylor, F. G., & Marshall, W. L. Experimental analysis of a cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression.Cognitive Therapy and Research 1977,1 59–72.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven D. Hollon
    • 1
  • Philip C. Kendall
    • 1
  1. 1.Cognitive Assessment Project, Department of PsychologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations