Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 17–39 | Cite as

Articulated thoughts during simulated situations: A paradigm for studying cognition in emotion and behavior

  • Gerald C. Davison
  • Clive Robins
  • Marcia K. Johnson


In spite of the widespread belief of cognitive behavior therapists and researchers that irrational thinking underlies much human psychological suffering, there is little if any direct evidence bearing on the assumption that people think in particular ways when confronted with stressful situations. A paradigm is proposed that appears capable of providing information about people's articulated thoughts as they occur in highly structured, experimenter-controlled situations. The results from an initial experiment indicate the utility of the paradigm in collecting data on how people think under both stressful and neutral conditions. The paradigm seems to offer great flexibility in examining thought processes under a wide range of conditions of interest to psychopathologists and cognitive researchers.


Cognitive Psychology Behavior Therapist Direct Evidence Initial Experiment Neutral Condition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bandura, A. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.Psychological Review 1977,84 191–215.Google Scholar
  2. Beck, A. T.Depression: Clinical, experimental and theoretical aspects. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  3. Cacioppo, J. T., Glass, C. R., & Merluzzi, T. V. Self-statements and self-evaluations: A cognitive-response analysis of heterosocial anxiety.Cognitive Therapy and Research 1979,3 249–262.Google Scholar
  4. Craighead, W. E., Kimball, W. H., & Rehak, P. J. Mood changes, physiological responses and self-statements during social rejection imagery.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1979,47 385–396.Google Scholar
  5. Davison, G. C. Differential relaxation and cognitive restructuring in therapy with a “paranoid schizophrenic” or “paranoid state.”Proceedings of the 74th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1966.Google Scholar
  6. Davison, G. C. Systematic desensitization as a counterconditioning process.Journal of Abnormal Psychology 1968,73 91–99.Google Scholar
  7. Davison, G. C. Homosexuality: The ethical challenge.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1976,44 157–162.Google Scholar
  8. Davison, G. C. Not can but ought: The treatment of homosexuality.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1978,46 170–172.Google Scholar
  9. Dollard, J., & Miller, N. E.Personality and psychotherapy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950.Google Scholar
  10. Ellis, A.Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. Secaucus, New Jersey: Lyle Stuart, 1962.Google Scholar
  11. Ellis, A. The basic clinical theory of rational-emotive therapy. In A. Ellis & R. Grieger (Eds.),Handbook of rational-emotive therapy. New York: Springer, 1977.Google Scholar
  12. Goldfried, M. R., & Davison, G. C.Clinical behavior therapy. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1976.Google Scholar
  13. Goldfried, M. R., & Sobocinski, D. Effects of irrational beliefs on emotional arousal.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1975,43 504–510.Google Scholar
  14. Halleck, S. L.The politics of therapy. New York: Science House, 1971.Google Scholar
  15. Hurlburt, R. T. Random sampling of cognitions and behavior.Journal of Research in Personality 1979,13 103–111.Google Scholar
  16. Hurlburt, R. T. Validation and correlation of thought sampling with retrospective measures.Cognitive Therapy and Research 1980,4 235–238.Google Scholar
  17. Hurlburt, R. T., & Sipprelle, C. N. Random sampling of cognitions in alleviating anxiety attacks.Cognitive Therapy and Research 1978,2 165–170.Google Scholar
  18. Jones, M. C. A laboratory study of fear: The case of Peter.Pedagogical Seminary 1924,31 308–315.Google Scholar
  19. Jones, R. G.A factored measure of Ellis's irrational belief system with personality and maladjustment correlates. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas Technological. College, 1968.Google Scholar
  20. Kendall, P. C., & Hollon, S. D. Assessing self-referent speech: Methods in the measurement of self-statements. In P. C. Kendall & S. D. Hollon (Eds.),Assessment strategies for cognitive-behavioral interventions. New York: Academic Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  21. Kendall, P. C., Williams, L., Pechacek, T. F., Graham, L. E., Shisslak, C., & Herzof, N. Cognitive-behavioral and patient education interventions in cardiac catheterization procedures: The Palo Alto medical psychology project.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1979,47 48–59.Google Scholar
  22. Klinger, E. Modes of normal conscious flow. In K. S. Pope & J. L. Singer (Eds.),The stream of consciousness: Scientific investigations into the flow of human experience. New York: Plenum, 1978.Google Scholar
  23. London, P.The modes and morals of psychotherapy. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1964.Google Scholar
  24. Magnusson, D., & Endler, N. S. (Eds.).Personality at the crossroads: Current issues in interactional psychology. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum, 1976.Google Scholar
  25. Mahoney, M. J.Cognition and behavior modification. Cambridge: Ballinger, 1974.Google Scholar
  26. Meichenbaum, D. Cognitive modification of test-anxious college students.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1972,39 370–380.Google Scholar
  27. Meichenbaum, D. Self-instructional methods: In F. Kanfer & A. Goldstein (Eds.),Helping people change. New York: Pergamon, 1975.Google Scholar
  28. Mischel, W.Personality and assessment. New York: Wiley, 1968.Google Scholar
  29. Mowrer, O. H. A stimulus-response analysis of anxiety and its role as a reinforcing agent.Psychological Review 1939,46 553–565.Google Scholar
  30. Newmark, C. S., Frerking, R. A., Cook, L., & Newmark, L. Endorsement of Ellis' irrational beliefs as a function of psychopathology.Journal of Clinical Psychology 1973,29 300–302.Google Scholar
  31. Pope, K. S.The stream of consciousness. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Yale University, 1977.Google Scholar
  32. Rimland, B.Infantile autism. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1964.Google Scholar
  33. Rimm, D., & Litvak, S. Self-verbalization and emotional arousal.Journal of Abnormal Psychology 1969,74 181–187.Google Scholar
  34. Rosenthal, D. Changes in some moral values following psychotherapy.Journal of Consulting Psychology 1955,19 431–436.Google Scholar
  35. Russell, P., & Brandsma, J. A theoretical and empirical integration of the rational-emotive and classical conditioning theories.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1974,42 389–397.Google Scholar
  36. Schwartz, R., & Gottman, J. Toward a task analysis of assertive behavior.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1976,44 910–920.Google Scholar
  37. Sutton-Simon, K., & Goldfried, M. R. Faulty thinking patterns in two types of anxiety.Cognitive Therapy and Research 1979,3 193–203.Google Scholar
  38. Vasta, R., & Brockner, J. Self-esteem and self-evaluative covert statements.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1979,47 776–777.Google Scholar
  39. Velten, E. A. A laboratory task for induction of mood states.Behaviour Research and Therapy 1968,6 473–482.Google Scholar
  40. Wachtel, P.Psychoanalysis and behavior therapy: Toward an integration. New York: Basic Books, 1977.Google Scholar
  41. Watson, D., & Friend, R. Measurement of social-evaluative anxiety.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1969,33 448–457.Google Scholar
  42. Wolpe, J.Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1958.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerald C. Davison
    • 1
  • Clive Robins
    • 2
  • Marcia K. Johnson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.State University of New YorkStony BrookUSA

Personalised recommendations