Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 1–18 | Cite as

Expectation as a mediator in alcohol intoxication: A reference level model

  • Stephen A. Maisto
  • Gerard J. Connors
  • Paul R. Sachs


The application of the construct of expectation to human psychopharmacology and alcohol research is briefly reviewed. It is argued that application of Schachterian theory and its extensions in current models of alcohol and expectancy is inappropriate. Furthermore, current models are based only on a limited set of findings and thus have limited utility. A reference level model of alcohol intoxication is proposed as an alternative to current models of alcohol and expectancy. It is shown that the reference level model can lead to significant progress in understanding past work and in stimulating new research.


Alcohol Cognitive Psychology Current Model Significant Progress Reference Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen A. Maisto
    • 1
  • Gerard J. Connors
    • 1
  • Paul R. Sachs
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA

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