Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 27, Issue 17, pp 4545–4566 | Cite as

Microtexture determination by electron back-scatter diffraction

  • D. J. Dingley
  • V. Randle
Review

Abstract

This review describes the use of an experimental technique known as electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) to measure microtexture, that is, spatially specific texture measured on an individual orientation basis. Other methods of microtexture determination are briefly described and compared with EBSD. The EBSD technique itself is described in considerable detail including recent developments such as on-line automation. Those EBSD-based microtexture studies which have been reported in the literature are summarized, including those which provide a direct comparison with macrotexture measurements obtained by X-ray diffraction. The concept of microtexture as the texture of individual grains leads naturally to the idea of “mesotexture” as the texture of grain boundaries. Mesotexture data can be computed from the EBSD-generated microtexture measurements and this is demonstrated and examples are given. Examples of microtexture/mesotexture studies in multiphase materials are also shown. Finally, because EBSD allows the simultaneous determination of microtexture/mesotexture and microstructural information, it is pertinent to discuss ways of displaying this sort of data, and so the review is completed by a discussion of the representation of microtextures and mesotextures, including the use of Rodrigues-Frank space and orientation mapping.

Keywords

Polymer Experimental Technique Simultaneous Determination Individual Orientation Orientation Mapping 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    H. J. Bunge, “Mathematische Methoden der Texturanalyse” (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1969).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Lucke, in “Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM6)”, edited by S. Nagashima (ISI Japan, Tokyo, 1981) p. 14.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. J. Bunge, “Texture Analysis in Materials Science” (translated by P. R. Morris) (Butterworths, London, 1982).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. R. Wenk (ed.), “Preferred Orientation in Deformed Metals and Rocks: an Introduction to Modern Texture Analysis” (Academic Press, London, 1985).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Hatherley andW. B. Hutchinson, “An Introduction to Textures in Metals”, Institution of Metallurgists Monograph No. 5 (Chameleon Press, London, 1979).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. J. Humphreys,Tex. Micros. 6 (1983) 45.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Idem, in “Proceedings of the 5th Riso Symposium”, edited by N. Hessel Anderson, M. Eldrup, N. Hansen, D. Juul Jensen, T. Letters, H. Lilholt, O. B. Pedersen and B. N. Singh (Riso National Laboratory Press, Denmark, 1984) p. 35.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. A. Schwarzer andH. Weiland, in “Experimental Techniques of Texture Analysis”, edited by H. J. Bunge (DGM Informationsgesellschraft Verlag, Oberursel, 1986) p. 287.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. A. Schwarzer andH. Weiland, in Proceedings of ICOTOM8”, edited by J. S. Kallend and G. Gottstein (AIME, Warrendale, PA, 1988) p. 203.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. A. Schwarzer, in “Proceedings of ICOTOM9”,Tex. Mic. 14–18 (1991) 85.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. J. Dingley,Phys. Bull. 36 (1985) 3.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. A. Venables andC. J. Harland,Phil. Mag. 27 (1973) 1193.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. A. Venables andR. Bin Jaya,ibid. 35 (1977) 1317.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. G. Coates,ibid. 16 (1967) 1179.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. C. Joy, in “Quantitative Scanning Electron Microscopy”, edited by D. B. Holt, M. D. Muir, P. R. Grant and I. M. Boswarva (Academic Press, London, 1974) p. 131.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. L. Davidson, in “Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting EMSA” (Claitors Press, Baton Rouge, 1976) p. 402.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. Nagagawa, in “Proceedings of the XIth International Congress on Electron Microscopy”, Vol. 35, Kyoto, edited by T. Imura, S. Maruse, T. Suzuki (Japanese Society for Electron Microscopy, Tokyo, 1986) p. 761.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Vale, in Institute of Physics Conference Series no. 78, “EMAG 85”, edited by G. J. Tatlock (Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1985) p. 79.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. Harase andR. Shimizu, in “Proceedings of the 10th Riso Symposium”, edited by J. B. Bilde-Sorensen, N. Hansen, D. Juul Jensen, T. Letters, H. Lilholt and O. B. Pedersen (Riso National Laboratory Press, 1989) p. 365.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Harase, R. Shimizu andT. Watanabe, in “Proceedings of ICOTOM8”, edited by J. S. Kallend and G. Gottstein (Metals Society Inc., PA, 1988) pp. 723, 729.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Y. Inokuti andR. D. Doherty,Acta Metall. 26 (1978) 61.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. J. Dingley,Scanning 1 (1978) 79.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    D. J. Dingley, C. Harper andS. Long, in “Proceedings of the Institute of Physics Conference Series”, 61 (Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1981) p. 63.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. N. Alam, M. Blackman andD. W. Pashley,Proc. R. Soc. 221A (1954) 224.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    D. J. Dingley,Scan. Elect. Microsc. 11 (1984) 74.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Idem, in “Proceedings of ICOTOM8”, edited by J. S. Kallend and G. Gottstein (Metals Society Inc., PA, 1988) p. 189.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Harase, T. Shimizu, D. J. Dingley andY. Arai,Jpn Inst. Metals Conf. Ser. 62 (1987) 502.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. J. Dingley, M. Longdon, J. Wienbren andJ. Alderman,Scan. Elect. Microsc. 1,2 (1987) 451.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    K. Baba-Kishi, PhD thesis, University of Bristol (1986).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. B. Buras, A. R. Hanson, E. M. Risemsan,Trans. IEEE P AMI 8 (1986) 425.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. Day, private communication (1989).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    D. Juul Jensen andN. H. Schmidt, in “Proceedings of Recrystallisation '90”, Wollongong, Australia, edited by T. Chandra (Min. Met. Mater. Soc., USA, 1990) in press.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. I. Wright, J. W. Zhao andB. L. Adams,Tex. Micros.,13 (1991) 123.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    D. Juul Jensen, N. Hansen, J. K. Kjems andT. Leffers, in “Proceedings of the 5th Riso Symposium”, edited by N. Hessel Andersen, M. Eldrup, N. Hansen, D. Juul Jensen, T. Letters, H. Lilholt, O. B. Pedersen and B. N. Singh (Riso National Laboratory Press, Roskilde, Denmark, 1984) p. 325.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    D. Juul Jensen andV. Randle, in “Proceedings of the 10th Riso Symposium”, edited by J. Bilde-Sorensen, N. Hansen, D. Juul Jensen, T. Letters, H. Lilholt and O. B. Pedersen (Riso National Laboratory Press, 1989) p. 103.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    S. Wismayer, B. Ralph andV. Randle, in “Proceedings of Recrystallisation '90”, Wollongong, Australia, edited by T. Chandra (Min. Met. Mater. Soc., USA, 1990) p. 181.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    P. Van Houtte, private communication (1990).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    “Proceedings of the Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM9)”, September 1990, in press.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. S. Kallend andG. Gottstein (eds) “Proceedings of ICOTOM8” (Metallurgical Society, 1987).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    H. R. Wenk andU. F. Kocks,Met. Trans. 18A (1987) 1083.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    F. C. Frank,ibid. 19A (1988) 403.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Idem, MRS Bull. March (1988) 24.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    V. Randle, unpublished work (1989).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    P. N. Quested, P. J. Henderson andM. McLean,Acta Metall. 36 (1988) 2743.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    R. A. D. Mackenzie andD. J. Dingley, in “Proceedings of the Xth Congress on Electron Microscopy”, Kyoto, Japan (1986) p. 709.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    R. Orsund andE. Nes,Scripta Metall. 23 (1989) 1187.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    R. Orsund, J. Hjelen andE. Nes,ibid. 23 (1989) 1193.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    H. J. Roven, E. A. Starke, O. Sodahl andJ. Hjelen,Scripta Metall. Mater. 24 (1990) 421.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    J. Hjelen andE. Nes, in “Proceedings of ICOTOM8”, edited by J. S. Kallend and G. Gottstein (Met. Soc., 1988) p. 597.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. Bottcher, M. Hastenrath, K. Lucke andJ. Hjelen, in “Proceedings of ICOTOM9”,Tex. Mic. 14–18 (1991) 673.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    D. Juul Jensen, N. Hansen andY. L. Liu, in “Proceedings of the 10th Riso Symposium”, edited by J. B. Bilde-Sorensen, N. Hansen, D. Juul Jensen, T. Letters, H. Lilholt and O. B. Pedersen (Riso National Laboratory, Denmark, 1989) p. 409.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    V. Randle, B. Ralph andD. J. Dingley,Acta Metall. 36 (1988) 267.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    V. Randle andB. Ralph,Tex. Micros. 8/9 (1988) 531.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    V. Randle andA. Brown,Phil. Mag. A58 (1988) 717.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Idem, ibid. A59 (1989) 1075.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    V. Randle andB. Ralph,Proc. R. Soc. A415 (1988) 239.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Idem, Proc. Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 90 (1987) 205.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    “Grain Boundary Structure and Kinetics” (ASM, Ohio, USA, 1980).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    V. Randle andB. Ralph,J. Mater. Sci. 21 (1986) 3823.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    L. Priester,Rev. Phys. Appl. 24 (1989) 419.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    H. Mykura, “Grain Boundary Structure and Kinetics” (ASM, OH, 1980) p. 445.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    V. Randle,Met. Trans. 21A (1990) 2215.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    T. Watanabe,Phil. Mag. 47A (1983) 531.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    M. Lunnon, PhD thesis, University of Bristol (1979).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    M. L. Kronberg andF. H. Wilson,Met. Trans. 185 (1949) 501.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    J. Furley andV. Randle,Mater. Sci. Technol. 7 (1991) 12.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    V. Randle andB. Ralph, in “Proceedings of EMSA” (1988) p. 63.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Idem, in “Proceedings of the MRS Spring Meeting”, pp. 122, 419.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Idem, in “Proceedings of EUREM”, edited by P. J. Goodhew and H. G. Dickson, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser no. 93 (1988) p. 231.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    V. Randle, in “Proceedings of the 10th Riso Symposium”, edited by B. J. Bilde-Sorensen, N. Hansen, D. Juul Jensen, T. Letters, H. Lilholt and O. B. Pedersen (Riso National Laboratory, Denmark, 1989) p. 529.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    S. R. Ortner andV. Randle,Scripta Metall. 23 (1989) 1903.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    V. Randle andD. J. Dingley, in “Proceedings of Recrystallisation '90”, Wollongong, Australia, edited by T. Chandra (Min. Met. Mater. Soc., USA, 1990) p. 175.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    V. Randle,Acta Metall. Mat. 39 (1991) 481.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Idem, Scripta Metall. 23 (1989) 773.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    V. Randle andD. J. Dingley,ibid. 23 (1989) 1565.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Idem, in “Proceedings of Euromat '89”, Aachen, Germany, 1990, edited by H. E. Exner, V. Schumacher and D. G. M. Oberusel.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    D. J. Dingley andK. Baba-Kishi, in “Proceedings of the XIth International Congress on Electron Microscopy”, Kyoto, 1986, p. 743.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    K. Baba-Kishi andD. J. Dingley,ibid., p. 741.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Idem, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 90 (EMAG 87) (1987) 135.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Idem, Institute of Metals Book 425, AEM workshop (1987) p. 71.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Idem, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 22 (1989) 89.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    A. O. Kluken, O. Grong andJ. Hjelen,Met. Trans., submitted.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    D. B. Jack, E. Koken andR. Underhill, in “Proceedings of the 10th Riso Symposium”, edited by B. J. Bilde-Sorensen, N. Hansen, D. Juul Jensen, T. Letters, H. Lilholt and O. B. Pedersen (Riso National Laboratory Press, Denmark, 1989) p. 403.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    G. Laird II andV. Randle,Acta Met. Mat., submitted.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    O. Rodrigues,J. de Math. Pure Appl. 5 (1840) 380.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    K. H. G. Ashbee andJ. P. Sargent,Met. Trans. 21A (1990) 253.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    P. Neumann, in “Proceedings of ICOTOM9”,Tex. Mic. 14–18 (1991) 53.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    V. Randle,Proc. Roy. Soc. 431A (1990) 61.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    J. K. Mackenzie,Acta Metall. 12 (1964) 223.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    D. J. Dingley, A. Day andA. Bewick, in “Proceedings of ICOTOM9”,Tex. Mic. 14–18 (1991) 91.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    D. J. Dingley,Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. Vol.98 (1989) 473.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    J. Hjelen, in Proceedings of Conference on Microscale Textures of Materials, to be published inTex. Mic. Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    R. Penelle,ibid. Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    T. Wang, P. R. Morris andB. L. Adams,Met. Trans. 21A (1990) 2265.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    D. P. Field, B. L. Adams andJ. Zhao, in “Proceedings of ICOTOM9”, in press.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    D. P. Field andB. L. Adams,Acta Met. Mat., in press.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    B. L. Adams, J. Zhao andD. O'Hara,Acta Met. Mat.,38 (1990) 953.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    ‘Microscale Texture of Materials’, American Society for Metals meeting in Cincinnati, USA, 1991; to be published inTextures and Microstructures Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    V. Randle,Microtexture Determination and its Applications, Institute of Metals, London, in press.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    V. Randle,Mat. Sci. Tech.,7 (1991) 985.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    R. Penelle, T. Baudin, P. Paillard andL. Mora, Proc. ICOTOM9,Tex. and Mic. 14–18 (1991) 597.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    H. S. Ubhi, C. J. Gilmore andA. W. Bowen, Proc. ‘EMAG '91’, Bristol, in press.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    J. Hjelen, H. Weiland, J. Butler, J. Liu, H. Hu andE. Nes, Proc. ICOTOM9,Tex. and Mic. 14–18 (1991) 983.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    D. Juul Jensen, N. Hansen andY. L. Liu,Mat. Sci. Tech. 7 (1991) 369.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    C. T. Necker, R. D. Doherty andA. D. Rollett, Proc. ICOTOM9,Tex. and Mic. 14–18 (1991) 635.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    A. J. Wilkinson,Mat. Sci. Eng. A135 (1991) 189.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. J. Dingley
    • 1
  • V. Randle
    • 1
  1. 1.H. H. Wills Physics LaboratoryUniversity of BristolBristolUK

Personalised recommendations