Fertilizer research

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 167–174

An enzymatic approach to the determination of the degree of stabilization of organic carbon in fertilizers

  • C. Ciavatta
  • M. Govi
  • L. Vittori Antisari
  • P. Sequi
Article

Abstract

An enzymatic approach to assess the stability of organic matter extracted from organic fertilizers and amendments is proposed. The use of 0.1M NaOH plus 0.1M Na4P2O7 previously suggested as a suitable extractant solution for soil organic matter was also found satisfactory for the extraction of organic matter from organic fertilizers and amendments, especially when the temperature was raised to 65°C. The presence of nonhumified compounds in the extracts from organic fertilizers may interfere considerably during fractionation of organic carbon. An enzymatic hydrolysis with lipase, lysozyme and pronase, added sequentially to the extracts, led to an appreciable reduction in the interference. The interference was further reduced by carrying out a successive acid hydrolysis with 3N H2SO4; in this case the DH values (percentage of humified fractions with respect to total extractable carbon) were reduced to less than 10% in all organic fertilizers, but remained higher than about 70% in organic amendments.

Key words

Enzymatic hydrolysis humified materials humification parameters organic carbon organic fertilizers 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bremner JM and Mulvaney CS (1982) Nitrogen-Total. In: AL Page et al. (Eds.) Methods of Soil Analysis, Agronomy 9, Part 2, 2nd Edition, pp. 595–624. Madison, WI: American Society of AgronomyGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Burns RG Ed. (1978) ‘Soil Enzymes’ Academic Press Inc Ltd: London GBGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burns RG, Pukite AM and McLaren AD (1972) Concerning the location and the persistence of soil urease. Soil Sci Soc Am J 36: 308–311Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ciavatta C, Vittori Antisari L and Sequi P (1988) A first approach to the characterization of the presence of humified materials in organic fertilizers. Agrochimica 32: 510–517Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ciavatta C and Sequi P (1989) Evaluation of chromium release during the decomposition of leather meal fertilizers applied to the soil. Fert Res 19: 7–11Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ciavatta C, Vittori Antisari L and Sequi P (1989) Determination of organic carbon in soils and fertilizers. Comm Soil Sci Plant Anal 20: 759–773Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ciavatta C, Govi M, Vittori Antisari L and Sequi P (1990) Characterization of humified compounds by extraction and fractionation on solid polyvinylpyrrolidone. J Chromatogr 509: 141–146Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ciavatta C, Govi M, Vittori Antisari L and Sequi P (1990) Determination of organic carbon in aqueous extracts of soils and fertilizers. Comm Soil Sci Plant Anal: submittedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    De Nobili M, Cercignani G, Leita L and Sequi P (1986) Evaluation of organic matter stabilization in sewage sludge. Comm Soil Sci Plant Anal 17: 1109–1119Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    De Nobili M and Petrussi F (1988) Humification index (HI) as evaluation of the stabilization degree during composting. J Ferment Technol 66: 577–582Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ladd JN (1978) Origin and range enzymes in soil. In: Burns RG (Ed.) Soil Enzymes, pp. 51–96. London, GB: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lafleur KS (1969) Temperature dependence of soil organic matter extraction. Soil Sci 107: 307–308Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mayaudon J (1986) The role of carbohydrates in the free enzymes in soil. In: Friedman CH (Ed.) Peat and Water, pp. 263–309. London, GB: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers LtdGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Petrussi F, De Nobili M, Viotto M and Sequi P (1988) Characterization of organic matter from animal manures after digestion by earthworms. Plant Soil 105: 41–46Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Saviozzi A, Levi-Minzi R and Riffaldi R (1988) Maturity evaluation of organic waste. BioCycle 198 (3): 45–54Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schnitzer M (1972) Humus substances: chemistry and reactions. In: Schnitzer M, and Khan SU (Eds.) Soil Organic Matter, pp. 55–56. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schnitzer M, Lowe LE, Dormaar JF, and Martel V (1981) Chemical parameters for the characterization of soil organic matter. Can J Soil Sci 61: 517–519Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sequi P, De Nobili M, Leita L and Cercignani G (1986) A new index of humification. Agrochimica 30: 175–179Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stevenson FJ (1982) Degradation products and chemical structures. In: Stevenson FJ (Ed.) Humus Chemistry: Genesis, Composition, Reactions, pp. 244–263. New York, NY: J Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vaughan D and Malcolm RE Eds (1985) ‘Soil Organic Matter and Biological activity’ Dev Plant Soil Sci vol 16 (Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W Junk Publ: Dordrecht, The Netherlands)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Ciavatta
    • 1
  • M. Govi
    • 1
  • L. Vittori Antisari
    • 1
  • P. Sequi
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Agricultural ChemistryUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations