, Volume 79, Issue 12, pp 551–559 | Cite as

Mechanisms of electromagnetic interaction with cellular systems

  • W. Grundler
  • F. Kaiser
  • F. Keilmann
  • J. Walleczek


The question of how electromagnetic fields - static or low to high frequency - interact with biological systems is of great interest. The current discussion among biologists, chemists, and physicists emphasizes aspects of experimental verification and of defining microscopic and macroscopic mechanisms. Both aspects are reviewed here. We emphasize that in certain situationsnonthermal interactions of electromagnetic fields occur with cellular systems.


Biological System Electromagnetic Field Experimental Verification Cellular System Electromagnetic Interaction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Grundler
    • 1
  • F. Kaiser
    • 2
  • F. Keilmann
    • 3
  • J. Walleczek
    • 4
  1. 1.GSF-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und GesundheitNeuherberg
  2. 2.Institut für Angewandte Physik, Technische HochschuleDarmstadt
  3. 3.Max-Planck-Institut für FestkörperforschungStuttgartFRG
  4. 4.Research Service, Jerry L. Pettis Memorial Veterans HospitalLoma LindaUSA

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