Control of the Biofouling Mollusc,Dreissena polymorpha (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae), with sodium hypochlorite and with polyquaternary ammonia and benzothiazole compounds

  • M. D. Martin
  • G. L. Mackie
  • M. A. Baker


Small adult zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), 2–8 mm valve length, collected from Lake St. Clair were exposed to a range of concentrations of three biocides in static, acute toxicity tests in the laboratory. Laboratory conditions (22°C; pH 7.8; water hardness ≈ 100 mg/L) were representative of midsummer conditions in the nearshore of Lakes Erie and St. Clair. Mussels actively colonized styrene test substrates which were transferred to three replicate, 1-L test vessels. Sodium hypochlorite was an effective biocide at concentrations exceeding 1.00 mg/L and resulted in complete mortality of mussels by 157 and 264 h at concentrations of 5.00 and 2.50 mg/L, respectively. Poly [oxyethylene (dimethylimino) ethylene (dimethylimino) ethylene dichloride] at 1,2,4 and 8 mg/l and (2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole) at 0.5,1,2 and 4 mg/L resulted in 100% mortality at all concentrations in times ranging from 144 to 250 h and 110 to 192 h, respectively. Biocide concentration significantly affected the mean time of death for all three of the compounds tested. Mussel valve length had a significant positive effect on time of death in (2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole) but only explained a maximum 18% of the variance. Resistance of these actively colonizing mussels to biocides was greater than that found by other laboratory studies, perhaps because of lowered handling stress in our experimental manipulations.


Bivalvia Biocide Dichloride Zebra Mussel Benzothiazole 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. D. Martin
    • 1
  • G. L. Mackie
    • 1
  • M. A. Baker
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

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