Feeding protein-deficient diets to rats is known to stimulate diet-induced thermogenesis and activate brown adipose tissue (BAT). The fact that BAT protein content, unlike that of other tissues, is unnaffected by protein deficiency prompted us to measure tissue protein synthesis in vivo in animals maintained on normal- (18.8%) and low- (7.6%) protein (LP) diets. Protein synthesis was depressed in the liver of the LP rats due to a fall in RNA activity, with no change in RNA content, and synthesis was also reduced in skeletal muscle from the LP group, but this was due to decreased RNA c o n t e n t with no change in RNA activity. Conversely, protein synthesis, RNA, DNA, and protein content of interscapular BAT were all unaltered in protein-restricted animals. These data indicate that, unlike liver, skeletal muscle, and whole carcass, BAT protein synthesis is not reduced in protein-restricted rats, and this may be related to activation of thermo-genesis in the tissue.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Miller DS & Payne PR (1962) Weight maintenance and food intake. J. Nutr.78, 255–262.
Stirling JL & Stock MJ (1968) Metabolic origins of thermogenesis induced by diet. Nature (London)220, 801–802.
Young RA, Tulp OL & Horton ES (1980) Thyroid and growth responses of young Zucker obese and lean rats to a low protein-high carbohydrate diet. J. Nutr.110, 1421–1431.
McCracken KJ & Gray R (1976) A futile energy cycle in adult rats given a low protein diet at high levels of energy intake. Proc. Nutr. Soc.35, 59A-60A.
Rothwell NJ & Stock MJ (1981) Regulation of energy balance. Ann. Rev. Nutr.1, 235–256.
Rothwell NJ & Stock MJ (1979) A role for brown adipose tissue in diet-induced thermogenesis. Nature (London)281, 31–35.
Rothwell NJ & Stock MJ (1982) Effects of feeding a palatable “cafeteria” diet on energy balance in young and adult lean (+/?) Zucker rats. Brit. J. Nutr.47, 461–471.
Rothwell NJ & Stock MJ (1981) Influence of noradrenaline on blood flow to brown adipose tissue in rats exhibiting dietinduced thermogenesis. Pflugers Archiv.389, 237–242.
Foster DO & Frydman ML (1978) Nonshivering thermogenesis in the rat. II Measurements of blood flow with microspheres point to brown adipose tissue as the dominant site of the calorigenesis induced by noradrenaline. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.56, 110–122.
Rothwell NJ, Stock MJ & Tyzbir RS (1980) Energy balance and mitochondrial function in liver and brown fat of rats fed cafeteria diets of varying protein content. J. Nutr.112, 1663–1672.
Rothwell NJ, Stock MJ & Tyzbir RS (1983) Mechanisms of thermogenesis induced by low protein diets. Metabolism32, 257–261.
Garlick PJ, NcNurlan MA & Preedy VR (1980) A rapid and convenient technique for measuring the rate of protein synthesis in tissues by injection of (3H)-phenylalanine. Biochem. J.192, 719–723.
Munro HN & Fleck A (1969) Analysis of tissue and body fluids for nitrogenous constituents. In “Mammalian Protein Metabolism” (Munro HN, ed), Vol 3, Chap 30, Academic Press, New York.
Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL & Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin reagent. J. Biol. Chem.193, 265–275.
Fleck A & Munro HN (1962) Precision of ultraviolet absorption measurement in Schmidt-Thannhauser procedure for nucleid acid estimation. Biochim. Biophys. Acta55, 571–576.
Giles KW & Myers A (1965) An improved diphenylamine method for the estimation of deoxyribonucleic acid. Nature (London)206, 93.
McNurlan MA & Garlick PJ (1981) Protein synthesis in liver and small intestine in protein deprivation and diabetes. Am. J. Physiol.241, E238-E245.
Waterlow JC, Garlick PJ & Millward DJ (1978) “Protein Turnover in Mammalian Tissues and in the Whole Body”, North Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam.
McNurland MA, Pain VM & Garlick PJ (1980) Conditions that alter rates of tissue protein synthesis in vivo. Biochem. Soc. Trans.8, 283–285.
Garlick PJ, Millward DJ & James WPT (1973) The response of muscle and liver protein synthesis in vivo in meal-fed rats. Biochem. J.136, 935–945.
Garlick PJ, Millward DJ & James WPT (1975) The effect of protein deprivation and starvation on the rate of protein synthesis in tissues of the rat. Biochim. Biophys. Acta414, 71–84.
Rothwell NJ & Stock MJ (1982) Effect of chronic food restriction on energy balance, thermogenic capacity, and brown adipose tissue activity in the rat. Biosci. Rep.2, 543–549.
Rothwell NJ, Saville ME, Stock MJ & Wyllie MG (1983) Influence of thyroid hormone on diet-induced thermogenesis in the rat. Horm. Metab. Res.15, 394–398.
Brown JG, Bates PC, Holliday MA & Millward DJ (1981) Thyroid hormones and muscle protein turnover. Biochem. J.194, 771–782.
Millward DJ, Bates PC, Brown JG, Holliday D, Odedra B, Emery PW & Rennie MJ (1983) Physiological mechanisms for the regulation of protein balance in skeletal muscle, in “Molecular Pathology of Nerve and Muscle: Noxious Agents and Genetic Lesions” (Kidman A & Tomkin JK, eds), Humana Press, New York.
Young JB, Saville ME, Rothwell NJ, Stock MJ & Landsberg L (1982) Effects of diet and cold exposure on norepinephrine turnover in brown adipose tissue of the rat. J. Clin. Invest.69, 1061–1071.
About this article
Cite this article
Emery, P.W., Rothwell, N.J. & Stock, M.J. Protein synthesis in liver, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue of rats fed a protein-deficient diet. Biosci Rep 3, 569–575 (1983). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01120702
- Skeletal Muscle
- Adipose Tissue
- Protein Content
- Protein Synthesis
- Brown Adipose Tissue