The Urban Review

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 109–123 | Cite as

Improving the school-home connection for poor and minority urban students

  • Carol Ascher


By examining the various meanings of the term parent involvement and the changing conditions of family life for poor and minority youth, it is argued that urban schools must join with parents to help make the education of students as effective as possible. The potential for creating partnerships which involve a wide range of community resources is discussed.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Armor, D., Conny-Osegura, P., Cox, M., King, N., McDonnell, L., Pascal, A., Pauly, E., and Zellman, G. (1976). Analysis of the school preferred reading program in selected Los Angeles minority schools. Santa Monica, CA: The Rand Corporation. ED 130-243.Google Scholar
  2. Ascher, C., and Flaxman, E. (1987). Lowering the dropout rate: The experience of urban superintendents. Prepared for the OERI Urban Superintendents Network. New York: ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, Teachers College, Columbia University. March. ED 286 966.Google Scholar
  3. Bastian, A., Fruchter, N., Gittell, M., Greer, C., and Haskins, K. (1987).Choosing Equality. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Benson, C. S. (1979). Household production of human capital: Time uses of parents and children as inputs. Paper prepared for a National Symposium on Efficacy and Equity in Educational Finance, University of Illinois, May.Google Scholar
  5. Benson, C. S., Buckley, S., and Medrick, E. A. (1980). Families as educators: Time use contributions to school achievement. In J. Guthrie (ed.),School Finance Policy in the 1980s: A Decade of Conflict. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  6. Berreuta-Clement, J. R., Schweinhart, L. J., Barnett, W. S., Epstein, A. S., and Weikart, D. P. (1984). Changed lives: The effects of the Perry Preschool Program on youths through age 19. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, Number eight.Google Scholar
  7. Brice Heath, S., and McLaughlin, M. (1987). A child resource policy: Moving beyond dependence on school and family.Phi Delta Kappan (April), 579.Google Scholar
  8. Brice Heath, S. (1983).Way with Words. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (1987). After-tax income of female-headed households lower in 1985 than in 1980, as gap widens between rich and poor Americans. Washington, D.C. July.Google Scholar
  10. Cochran, M. (1987). The parental empowerment process: Building on family strengths.Equity and Choice 4(1): 9–24.Google Scholar
  11. Cole, M., and Griffin, P., eds. (1987). Contextual factors in education: Improving science and mathematics education for minorities and women. Madison, WI: Committee on Research on Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education, Wisconsin Center for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  12. Coleman, J. S. (1987). Families and schools. Paper presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Washington, D.C. April.Google Scholar
  13. Coleman, J. S., and Hoffer, T. (1987).Public and Private High Schools: The Impact of Communities. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  14. Committee for Economic Development, Research and Policy Committee (1987). Children in need: Investment strategies for the educationally disadvantaged. New York.Google Scholar
  15. Dornbusch, S. (1986). Helping your kid make the grade.The Stanford Magazine (summer). Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar
  16. Edelman, M. W. (1987).Children's Time. Washington, D.C.: Children's Defense Fund.Google Scholar
  17. Epstein, J. (1984a). Single parents and the schools: The effect of marital status on parent and teacher evaluations. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University, Center for Social Organization of Schools, March.Google Scholar
  18. Epstein, J. (1984b). Effects of teacher practices of parental involvement on change in student achievement in reading and math. Paper presented at the 1984 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, April. ED 256-863.Google Scholar
  19. Espinosa, R., et al. (1985). Working parents project. Final report (December 1, 1984–November 30, 1985). Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Lab. ED 266-871.Google Scholar
  20. Gordon, I. (1978). What does research say about the effects of parent involvement on schooling? Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  21. Grau, M. E., Weinstein, T., and Walberg, H. J. (1983). School-based home instruction and learning: A quantitative synthesis.Journal of Educational Research 76: 351–360.Google Scholar
  22. Henderson, A. T. (1987). The evidence continues to grow: Parent involvement improves student achievement. Columbia, MD: National Committee for Citizens in Education.Google Scholar
  23. Herman, J. L., and Yeh, J. P. (1983). Some effects of parent involvement in schools.The Urban Review 15(1): 11–17.Google Scholar
  24. Lareau, A., & Benson, C. (1984). The economics of home/school relationships: A cautionary note.Phi Delta Kappan 65(6): 401–404.Google Scholar
  25. Leler, H. (1983). Parent education and involvement in relation to the schools and to parents of school-aged children. I R. Haskins and D. Adamson (eds.),Parent education and Public Policy. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex.Google Scholar
  26. McDill, E. L., Rigsby, L., and Meyers, E. (1969). Educational climates of high schools: Their effects and sources. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Unversity Center for the Study of Social Organization of Schools. April. ED 030-205.Google Scholar
  27. The Metropolitan Life Survey (1987). The American teacher, 1987: Strengthening links between home and school. New York: Louis Harris and Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  28. Nathan, R. P. (1986). The concentration of poor people in poverty areas in the nation's 100 largest cities. New York: New School for Social Research.Google Scholar
  29. Revicki, E. A. (1981). The relationship among socioeconomic status, home environment, parent involvement, child self-concept, and child achievement. ED 206-645.Google Scholar
  30. Rich, D. (1985). The forgotten factor in school success: The family—A policymaker's guide. Washington, D.C.: The Home and School Institute.Google Scholar
  31. Swap, M. S. (1987).Enhancing Parent Involvement in Schools. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  32. Today's native sons: Inner-city black males are America's newest lost generation. (1986).Time Magazine, Dec. 1, 26–32.Google Scholar
  33. Toomey, D. (1986). Home-school relations and inequality in education. School of Education, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia. Address given to a Conference on Education and the Family, Brigham Young University.Google Scholar
  34. Tran, X. C. (1982). The factors hindering Indochinese parent participation in school activities. San Diego, CA: San Diego State University, Institute for Cultural Pluralism. ED 245-018.Google Scholar
  35. U.S. Department of Education (1986). What works: Research about teaching and learning. Washington, D.C.: Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  36. Wagenaar, T. C. (1977). School achievement level vis-a-vis community involvement and support: An empirical assessment. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, Hershon Center. Paper presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, Chicago, September. ED 146-111.Google Scholar
  37. Walberg, H. J. (1984a, February). Families as partners in educational productivity.Phi Delta Kappan 65(6): 397–400.Google Scholar
  38. Walberg, H. J. (1984b). Improving the productivity of America's schools.Educational Leadership (May), 19–27.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Agathon Press, Inc. 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carol Ascher
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Urban and Minority Education, Teachers CollegeColumbia UniversityNew York

Personalised recommendations