There is a growing volume of literature that points to the potential for small technology-based firms to achieve substantial employment growth. As a direct consequence of such work this sector of any economy has attracted increasing attention from national and local Governments concerned with finding ways of revitalising economically deprived localities and creating employment opportunities. This paper provides up-to-date empirical evidence surrounding the ability of small high-technology firms to create additional jobs in Great Britain. In addition, key founder and business characteristics are isolated which are significantly associated with employment change in growing high-technology firms over the 1986 to 1992 period. With respect to factors influencing these high levels of employment growth, a high firm size (in 1986) was found to act positively on employment growth, as was a graduate level education for the key founder. On the finance side firms which had access to and used a multiplicity of sources of start-up finance tended to grow faster. Futher, on the basis of our results we would suggest (and recommend) a Government policy which at the firm level actively encourages high-technology firm start-ups (who record higher rates of survival than firms in more ‘conventional’ sectors) as well as providing support for existing high-technology firms who have already demonstrated the inclination and ability to grow in employment size.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Aldrich, H. E., 1992, ‘Methods in Our Madness? Trends In Entrepreneurship Research’, in D. L. Sexton and J. D. Kasarda (eds.),The State of the Art of Entrepreneurship, Boston, Massachusetts: PWS-Kent Publishing, pp. 191–213.
American Electronics Association, 1978,Written Statement before the House Committee on Ways and Means (E. U. W. Zachau, Chairman, Capital Formation Task Force, AEA), 7 March.
Amit, R., L. Glosten and E. Muller, 1993, ‘Challenges to Theory Development in Entrepreneurship Research’,Journal of Management Studies 30, 815–834.
Armington, C., 1983,Further Examination of Sources of Recent Employment Growth: Analysis of USEEM data for 1976 to 1980, Brookings Institution, Business Microdata Project, Mimeo.
Audretsch, D. B., 1991, ‘New Firm Survival and the Technological Regime’,Review of Economics and Statistics 73(3), 441–450
Aydalot, P. and D. Keeble (eds.), 1988,High Technology Industry and Innovative Environments: The European Experience, London: Routledge.
Baden-Fuller, C. W. F., 1989, ‘Exit from Declining Industries in the Case of Steel Castings’,Economic Journal 99, 949–961.
Barkham, R., 1994, ‘Entrepreneurial Characteristics and the Size of the New Firm: A Model and an Econometric Test’,Small Business Economics 6(2), 117–126
Bartik, T. J., 1989, ‘Small Business Start Ups in the United States: Estimates of the Effects of the Characteristics of States’,Southern Economic Journal 55, 1004–1018.
Bates, T., 1990, ‘Entrepreneur Human Capital Inputs and Small Business Longevity’,Review of Economics and Statistics 72, 551–559.
Bates, T., 1991, ‘Commercial Bank Financing of White and Black-Owned Small Business Start-Ups’,Quarterly Review of Economics and Business 31, 64–80.
Baum, J. A. C. and S. J. Mezias, 1992, ‘Localized Competition and Organizational Failure in the Manhattan Hotel Industry, 1898–1990’,Administrative Science Quarterly 37, 580–604.
Birch, D. L., 1979, ‘The Job Generation Process’,MIT Program on Neighbourhood and Regional Change, MIT.
Birley, S., 1987, ‘New Ventures and Employment Growth’,Journal of Business Venturing 2, 155–165.
Birley, S. and P. Westhead, 1990a, ‘‘North-South’ Contrasts in the Characteristics and Performance of Small Firms’,Entrepreneurship & Regional Development 2, 27–48.
Birley, S. and P. Westhead, 1990b, ‘Growth and Performance Contrasts between ‘Types’ of Small Firms’,Strategic Management Journal 11, 535–557.
Birley, S. and P. Westhead, 1992, ‘A Comparison of New Firms in ‘Assisted’ and ‘Non-Assisted’ Areas in Great Britain’,Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 4, 299–338.
Birley, S. and P. Westhead, 1993, ‘A Comparison of New Businesses Established by ‘Novice’ and ‘Habitual’ Founders in Great Britain’,International Small Business Journal 12, 38–60.
Blanchflower, D. G. and A. Oswald, 1991, ‘Self Employment and the Enterprise Culture’, in R. Jowell, S. Witherspoon and L. Brook (eds.),British Social Attitudes, 7th Report SCPR, Aldershot: Gower, pp. 172–194
Bolton, J. E., 1971,Small Firms: Report of the Committee of Inquiry on Small Firms, London: HMSO, Cmnd. 4811.
Breheny, M. and R. McQuaid, 1987, ‘High Technology UK: The Development of High Technology Industry’, in M. Breheny and R. McQuaid (eds.),The Development of High Technology Industry, London: Croom Helm, pp. 297–354.
Broom, H. N., J. G. Longenecker and C. W. Moore, 1983,Small Business Management, Cincinnati, OH: Southwest Publishing.
Bruno, A. V. and T. T. Tyebjee, 1984, ‘The Entrepreneur's Search for Capital’, in J. Hornaday, F. Tarpley Jr, J. Timmons and K. H. Vesper (eds.),Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 1984, Wellesley, Massachusetts: Babson College, pp. 18–31.
Bruno, A. V., E. F. McQuarrie and C. G. Torgrimson, 1992, ‘The Evolution of New Technology Ventures Over 20 Years: Patterns of Failure, Merger, and Survival’,Journal of Business Venturing 7, 291–302.
Bullock, M., 1983,Academic Enterprise, Industrial Innovation, and the Development of High Technology Financing in the United States, London: Brand Bros and Co.
Cambridge Small Business Research Centre, 1992,The State of British Enterprise: Growth, Innovation and Competitive Advantage in Small and Medium-Sized Firms, University of Cambridge: Small Business Research Centre, Department of Applied Economics.
Campbell, C. A., 1992, ‘A Decision Theory Model for Entrepreneurial Acts’,Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice 17, 21–27.
Carter, N. M., T.M Stearns, P. D. Reynolds and B. A. Miller, 1991,Strategy and Initial Competencies: Achieving ‘Fit’ in New Ventures, Proceedings of the Inaugural Global Conference on Entrepreneurship Research, London: The Management School, Imperial College.
Casson, M., 1982,The Entrepreneur: An Economic Theory, Oxford: Martin Robertson.
Chakrabarti, A. K. and M. R. Halperin, 1990, ‘Technical Performance and Firms Size: Analysis of Patents and Publications of US Firms’,Small Business Economics 2, 183–190.
Chambers, B. R., S. L. Hart and D. R. Denison, 1988, ‘Founding Team Experience and New Firm Performance’, in B. A. Kirchhoff, W. A. Long, W. E. McMullen, K. H. Vesper and W. E. Wetzel Jr (eds.),Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 1988, Wellesley, Massachusetts: Babson College, pp. 106–118.
Child, J., 1974,Management and Organization, New York: Halstead Press.
Churchill, N. C., 1992, ‘Research Issues in Entrepreneurship’, in D. L. Sexton and J. D. Kasarda (eds.),The State of the Art of Entrepreneurship, Boston, Massachusetts: PWS-Kent Publishing, pp. 579–596.
Churchill, N. C. and V. L. Lewis, 1983, ‘The Five Stages of Small Business Growth’,Harvard Business Review 61, 30–50.
Coombes, M. G., D. J. Storey, R. Watson and P. Wynarczyk, 1991, ‘The Influence of Location upon Profitability and Employment Change in Small Companies’,Urban Studies 28, 723–734.
Cooper, A. C., 1985, ‘The Role of Incubator Organizations in the Founding of Growth-Oriented Firms’,Journal of Business Venturing 1, 75–86.
Cooper, A. C., 1993, ‘Challenges in Predicting New Firm Performance’,Journal of Business Venturing 8, 241–253.
Cooper, A. C. and A. Bruno, 1977, ‘Success Among High Technology Firms’,Business Horizons 20, 16–22.
Cooper, A. C., C. Y. Woo and W. C. Dunkelberg, 1988a, ‘Entrepreneurs' Perceived Chances for Success’,Journal of Business Venturing 3, 97–108.
Cooper, A. C., W. C Dunkelberg and C. V. Woo, 1988b, ‘Survival and Failure: A Longitudinal Study’, in B. A. Kirchhoff, W. A. Long, W. E. McMullen, K. H. Vesper and W. E. Wetzel Jr (eds.),Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 1988, Wellesley, Massachusetts: Babson College, pp. 225–237.
Cooper, A. C., F. J. Gimeno Gascon and C. Y. Woo, 1991, ‘A Resource-Based Prediction of New Venture Survival and Growth’, in J. L. Wall, L. R. Jauch, D. Roberts, R. Ross and C. Kelly (eds.),Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Madison, Wisconsin: Omnipress, pp. 68–72.
Cooper, A. C. and F. J. Gimeno Gascon, 1992, ‘Entrepreneurs, Processes of Founding, and New Firm Performance’, in D. L. Sexton and J. D. Kasarda (eds.),The State of the Art of Entrepreneurship, Boston, Massachusetts: PWS-Kent Publishing, pp. 301–340.
Cooper, A. C., G. E. Willard and C. Y. Woo, 1986, ‘Strategies of High-Performing New and Small Firms: A Reexamination of the Niche Concept’,Journal of Business Venturing 1, 247–260.
Covin, J. G. and D. P. Slevin, 1989, ‘Strategic Management of Small Firms in Hostile and Benign Environments’,Strategic Management Journal 10, 75–87.
Cragg, P. B. and M. King, 1988, ‘Organizational Characteristics and ‘Small Firms’ Performance Revisited’,Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 13, 49–64.
Daly, M., 1991, ‘VAT Registrations and Deregistrations in 1990’,Employment Gazette 99, 579–588.
Davidsson, P., 1991, ‘Continued Entrepreneurship: Ability, Need, and Opportunity as Determinants of Small Firm Growth’,Journal of Business Venturing 6, 405–429.
Deakins, D. and T. Philpott, 1993, ‘Comparative European Practices in the Finance of Small Firms: UK, Germany and Holland’, Birmingham: University of Central England, Working Paper.
De Melto, D. P., K. E. McMullen and R. M. Willis, 1980,Innovation and Technological Change in Five Canadian Industries, Economic Council of Canada, Ottawa: Discussion Paper No. 176.
Donckels, R. and J. P. Segers, 1990, ‘New Technology Based Firms and the Creation of Regional Growth Potential’,Small Business Economics 2, 33–44.
Doutriaux, J. and F. Simyar, 1987, ‘Duration of Comparative Advantage Accruing from Some Start-Up Factors in High-Tech Entrepreneurial Firms’, in N. C. Churchill, J. A. Hornaday, B. A. Kirchhoff, O. J. Krasner and K. H. Vesper (eds.),Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 1987, Boston: Mass: Babson College, pp. 436–451.
Dunkelberg, W. C. and A. C. Cooper, 1982, ‘Patterns of Small Business Growth’,Academy of Management Proceedings 1982, 409–413.
Dunkelberg, W. C., A. C. Cooper, C. Woo and W. Dennis, 1987, ‘New Firm Growth and Performance’, in N. C. Churchill, J. A. Hornaday, B. A. Kirchhoff, O. J. Krasner and K. H. Vesper (eds.),Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 1987, Boston: Mass: Babson College, pp. 307–321.
Dunne, P. and A. Hughes, 1992,Age, Size, Growth and Survival Revisited. Cambridge: Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge, Working Paper No. 23.
Dunne, T., M. J. Roberts and L. Samuelson, 1989, ‘The Growth and Failure of US Manufacturing Plants’,Quarterly Journal of Economics 104, 671–698.
Evans, D. S., 1987a, ‘Tests of Alternative Theories of Firm Growth’,Journal of Political Economy 95, 657–674.
Evans, D. S., 1987b, ‘The Relationship Between Firm Growth, Size and Age: Estimates for 100 Manufacturing Industries’,The Journal of Industrial Economics 35, 567–581.
Fischer, M. M., J. Frohlich and H. Gassler, 1994, ‘An Exploration into the Determinants of Patent Activities: Some Empirical Evidence for Austria’,Regional Studies 28, 1–12.
Foley, P., 1987, ‘Analysis of the Factors Contributing to Small Business Success’, Paper Presented at the Operational Research Society Annual Conference, Edinburgh, 8th September.
Flynn, D. M., 1993, ‘A Critical Exploration of Sponsorship, Infrastructure, and New Organizations’,Small Business Economics 5, 129–156.
Fothergill, G. and G. Gudgin, 1982,Unequal Growth: Urban and Regional Employment Change in the UK, London: Heinemann.
Freedman, J. and M. Godwin, 1992, ‘Legal Form, Tax and the Micro-Business’, in K. Caley, E. Chell, F. Chittenden and C. Mason (eds.),Small Enterprise Development: Policy and Practice in Action, London: Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd, pp. 106–131.
Gallagher, C. C. and P. Miller, 1991, ‘New Fast-Growing Companies Create Jobs’,Long Range Planning 24, 96–101.
Garnsey, E. and A. Cannon-Brookes, 1993, ‘The ‘Cambridge Phenomenon’ Revisited: Aggregate Change Among Cambridge High-Technology Companies Since 1985’,Entrepreneurship & Regional Development 5, 179–207.
Garnsey, E. W., S. C. Galloway and S. H. Mathisen, 1994, ‘Flexibility and Specialization in Question; Birth, Growth and Death Rates of Cambridge New Technology-Based Firms 1988–92’,Entrepreneurship & Regional Development 6, 81–107.
Gartner, W. B., 1985, ‘A Conceptual Framework for Describing the Phenomenon of New Venture Creation’,Academy of Management Review 10, 696–706.
Gartner, W. B., T. R. Mitchell and K. H. Vesper, 1989, ‘A Taxonomy of New Business Ventures’,Journal of Business Venturing 4, 169–186.
Gibb, A. A. and L. Davies, 1990, ‘In Pursuit of Frameworks for the Development of Growth Models of the Small Business’,International Small Business Journal 9, 15–31.
Gould, A. and D. Keeble, 1984, ‘New Firms and Rural Industrialization in East Anglia’,Regional Studies 18, 189–201.
Grayson, L., 1993,Science Parks: An Experiment in High Technology Transfer, London: The British Library.
Gudgin, G., 1978,Industrial Location Processes and Regional Employment Growth, Farnborough: Saxon House.
Hakim, C., 1989, ‘Identifying Fast Growth Small Firms’,Employment Gazette 97, 29–41.
Hall, G., 1989, ‘Lack of Finance as a Constraint on the Expansion of Innovatory Small Firms’, in J. Barber, J. S. Metcalf and M. Porteus (eds.),Barriers to Growth in Small Firms, London: Routledge, pp. 39–57.
Hannan, M. T. and G. R. Carroll, 1992,Dynamics of Organizational Populations: Density, Legitimation and Competition, New York: Oxford University Press.
Hannan, M. T. and J. H. Freeman, 1977, ‘The Population Ecology of Organisations’,American Journal of Sociology 82, 929–964.
Hannan, M. T. and J. H. Freeman, 1988, ‘Density Dependence in the Growth of Organisational Populations’, in G. R. Carroll (ed.),Ecological Models of Organizations, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Ballinger, pp. 7–32.
Jones, M., 1991,Small Firms Study 1985, 1988 and 1991, Coventry: University of Warwick MBA, Unpublished Dissertation.
Jovanovic, B., 1982, ‘Selection and Evolution of Industry’,Econometrica 50, 649–670.
Kalleberg, A. L. and K. T. Leicht, 1991, ‘Gender and Organizational Performance: Determinants of Small Business Survival and Success’,Academy of Management Journal 34, 136–161.
Katz, R. L., 1970,Cases and Concepts in Corporate Strategy, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc.
Keeble, D. and T. Kelly, 1986, ‘New Firms and High-Technology Industry in the United Kingdom: The Case of Computer Electronics’, in D. Keeble and E. Wever (eds.),New Firms and Regional Development in Europe, London: Croom Helm, pp. 75–104.
Kinsella, R. P., W. Clarke, D. Coyne, D. Mulvenna and D. J. Storey, 1994,Fast Growth Small Firms: An Irish Perspective, Dublin: Irish Management Institute.
Kotler, P. and R. Singh, 1981, ‘Marketing Warfare in the 1980s’,Journal of Business Strategy 1, 30–41.
Low, M. B. and I. C. MacMillan, 1988, ‘Entrepreneurship: Past Research and Future Challenges’,Journal of Management 14, 139–161.
MacPherson, A. D., 1992, ‘Innovation, External Linkages and Small Firm Commercial Performance: An Empirical Analysis from Western New York’,Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 4, 165–183.
Macrae, D. J. R., 1991, ‘Characteristics of High and Low Growth Small and Medium Sized Businesses’, Paper Presented at the 21st European Small Business Centre, Barcelona, Spain.
Mahmood, T., 1992, ‘Does the Hazard Rate for New Plants Vary Between Low-and High-Tech Industries?’,Small Business Economics 4, 201–209.
Malecki, E. J., 1991,Technology and Economic Development: The Dynamics of Local, Regional and National Change, Harlow: Longman.
Martin, R., 1985, ‘Monetarism Masquerading as Regional Policy? The Government's New System of Regional Aid’,Regional Studies 19, 379–388.
Meyer-Krahmer, F., 1985, ‘Innovation Behaviour and Regional Indigenous Potential’,Regional Studies 19, 523–534.
Monck, C. S. P., R. B. Porter, P. Quintas, D.J. Storey and P. Wynarczyk, 1988,Science Parks and The Growth of High Technology Firms, London: Croom Helm.
Morse, R. S., 1976,The Role of New Technical Enterprise in the US Economy, Washington DC: Report of the Technical Advisory Board to the Secretary of Commerce.
National Board for Science and Technology, 1980,Innovation in Small Firms — Preliminary Report, Dublin: National Board for Science and Technology.
North, D., R. Leigh and D. Smallbone, 1992, ‘A Comparison of Surviving and Non-Surviving Small and Medium-Sized Manufacturing Firms in London During the 1980s’, in K. Caley, E. Chell, F. Chittenden and C. Mason (eds.),Small Enterprise Development: Policy and Practice in Action, London: Paul Chapman Publishing, pp. 12–27.
Oakey, R., 1984,High Technology Small Firms, London: Pinter.
Oakey, R., 1985, ‘British University Science Parks and High Technology Small Firms: A Comment on the Potential for Sustained Industrial Growth’,International Small Business Journal 4, 58–67.
Oakey, R., 1991a, ‘Government Policy Towards High Technology: Small Firms Beyond the Year 2000’, in J. Curran and R. Blackburn (eds.),Paths of Enterprise: The Future of the Small Business, London: Routledge, pp. 128–148.
Oakey, R., 1991b, ‘High Technology Small Firms: Their Potential for Rapid Industrial Growth’,International Small Business Journal 9, 30–42.
Oakey, R., 1993, ‘High Technology Small Firms: A More Realistic Evaluation of their Growth Potential’, in C. Karlsson, B. Johannisson and D. Storey (eds.),Small Business Dynamics: International, National and Regional Perspectives, London: Routledge, pp. 224–242.
Oakey, R., R. Rothwell and S. Y. Cooper, 1988,The Management of Innovation in High Technology Small Firms, London: Pinter Publishers.
O'Farrell, P. N. and R. Crouchley, 1987, ‘Manufacturing-Plant Closures: A Dynamic Survival Model’,Environment and Planning A 19, 313–329.
O'Farrell, P. N. and R. P. Oakey, 1993, ‘The Employment and Skill Implications of the Adoption of New Technology: A Comparison of Small Engineering Firms in Core and Peripheral Regions’,Urban Studies 30, 507–526.
Pakes, A. and R. Ericson, 1987,Empirical Implications of Alternative Models on Firm Dynamics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Economics.
Pennings, J. M., 1982, ‘Elaboration on the Entrepreneur and his Environment’, in C. A. Kent, D. L. Sexton and K. H. Vesper (eds.),Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, pp. 307–315.
Pfeffer, J. and G. R. Salancik, 1978,The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective, New York: Harper & Row.
Phillips, B. D. and B. A. Kirchhoff, 1989, ‘Formation, Growth and Survival: Small Firm Dynamics in the US Economy’,Small Business Economics 1, 65–74.
Phillips, B. D., B. A. Kirchhoff and H. S. Brown, 1991, ‘Formation, Growth and Mobility of Technology-Based Firms in the US Economy’,Entrepreneurship & Regional Development 3, 129–144.
Piatier, A., 1981,Enquete sur L'Innovation: Premiers Resultats, Paris: Centre D'etude des Techniques Modernes.
Porter, M. E., 1985,Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, New York: The Free Press.
Reid, G. C., 1991, ‘Staying in Business’,International Journal of Industrial Organization 9, 545–556.
Reynolds, P. D. and B. Miller, 1988,1988 Minnesota New Firms Study: An Exploration of New Firms and their Economic Contributions, Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, Centre for Urban and Regional Affairs.
Reynolds, P. D. and B. Miller, 1989, ‘New Firm Survival: Analysis of a Panel's Fourth Year’, in R. H. Brockhaus Sr, N. C. Churchill, J. A. Katz, B. A. Kirchhoff, K. H. Vesper and W. E. Wetzel Jr (eds.),Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 1989, Wellesley, Massachusetts: Babson College, pp. 159–172.
Roberts, E. B., 1991,Entrepreneurs in High Technology: Lessons from MIT and Beyond, New York: Oxford University Press.
Romanelli, E., 1989, ‘Environments and Strategies of Organization Start-Up: Effects on Early Survival’,Administrative Science Quarterly 34, 369–387.
Rothwell, R. and W. Zegveld, 1982,Innovation and Small-and Medium-Sized Firms, London: Frances Pinter.
Roure, J. B. and M. A. Maidique, 1986, ‘Linking Prefunding Factors and High-Technology Venture Success: An Exploratory Study’,Journal of Business Venturing 1, 295–306.
Shaw, G. and D. Wheeler, 1985,Statistical Techniques in Geographical Analysis, Chichester: John Wiley.
Siegel, R., E. Siegel and I. C. MacMillan, 1993, ‘Characteristics Distinguishing High-Growth Ventures’,Journal of Business Venturing 8, 169–180.
Solem, O. and M. P. Steiner, 1989, ‘Factors for Success in Small Manufacturing Firms — and with Special Emphasis on Growing Firms’, in M. Virtanen (ed.),Proceedings of the Conference on SMEs and the Challenges of 1992, Helsinki: Helsinki School of Economics and Business Administration Publications, M-47.
Specht, P. M., 1993, ‘Munificence and Carrying Capacity of the Environment and Organization Formation’,Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 18, 77–86.
Stinchcombe, A. L., 1965, ‘Social Structure and Organizations’, in J. G. March (ed.),Handbook of Organizations, Chicago: Rand McNally, pp. 153–193.
Storey, D. J., 1982,Entrepreneurship and the New Firm, London: Croom Helm.
Storey, D. J., 1985, ‘Manufacturing Employment Change in Northern England 1965–78: The Role of Small Businesses’, in D. J. Storey (ed.),Small Firms in Regional Economic Development: Britain, Ireland and the United States, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 6–42.
Storey, D. J., 1989, ‘Firm Performance and Size: Explanations from the Small Firm Sectors’,Small Business Economics 1, 175–180.
Storey, D. J., 1994a,Understanding the Small Business Sector, London: Routledge.
Storey, D. J., 1994b, ‘The Role of Legal Status in Influencing Bank Financing and New Firm Growth’,Applied Economics 26, 129–136.
Storey, D. J., K. Keasey, R. Watson and P. Wynarczyk, 1987a,The Performance of Small Firms: Profits, Jobs and Growth, London: Croom Helm.
Storey, D. J., R. Watson and P. Wynarczyk, 1987b,Fast Growth Small Businesses: Case Studies of 40 Small Firms in North East England, London: Department of Employment Research Paper No. 67.
Storey, D. J. and A. Strange, 1992a, ‘Where Are They Now? Some Changes in Firms Located on UK Science Parks in 1986’,New Technology, Work and Employment 7, 15–28.
Storey, D. J. and A. Strange, 1992b, ‘New Players in the ‘Enterprise Culture’?’, in K. Caley, E. Chell, F. Chittenden and C. Mason (eds.),Small Enterprise Development: Policy and Practice in Action, London: Paul Chapman Publishing, pp. 85–95.
Variyam, J. N. and D. S. Kraybill, 1992, ‘Empirical Evidence on Determinants of Firm Growth’,Economics Letters 38, 31–36.
Watson, R., 1990, ‘Employment Change, Profits and Directors Remuneration in Small and Closely-Held UK Companies’,Scottish Journal of Political Economy 37, 259–274.
Westhead, P. and S. Birley, 1993, ‘Employment Growth in New Independent Owner-Managed Firms in Great Britain’, Paper Presented at the Seventh European Entrepreneurship Research Conference — Rent VII, Budapest, Hungary, November.
Westhead, P. and D. J. Storey, 1994,An Assessment of Firms Located On and Off Science Parks in the United Kingdom, Lodnon: HMSO.
Westhead, P., D. J. Storey and M. Cowling, 1993, ‘An Exploratory Analysis of the Factors Associated with the Survival of Independent High-Technology Firms in Great Britain’, Paper Presented at the Sixteenth United Kingdom National Small Firms Policy and Research Conference, Nottingham, November.
Wilkens, J., 1987,Her Own Business: Success Secrets of Entrepreneurial Women, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Woo, C. Y., A. C. Cooper, W. C. Dunkelberg, U. Dallenbach, and W. J. Dennis, 1989, ‘Determinants of Growth for Small and Large Entrepreneurial Startups’, in R. H. Brockhaus Sr, N. C. Churchill, J. A. Katz, B. A. Kirchhoff, K. H. Vesper and W. E. Wetzel Jr (eds.),Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 1989, Boston: Mass: Babson College, pp. 134–147.
Wynarczyk, P., R. Watson, D. J. Storey, H. Short and K. Keasey, 1993,Managerial Labour Markets in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises, London: Routledge.
About this article
Cite this article
Westhead, P., Cowling, M. Employment change in independent owner-managed high-technology firms in Great Britain. Small Bus Econ 7, 111–140 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01108686
- Employment growth
- small firms
- policy implications