Advertisement

Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 417–446 | Cite as

Protection of intraspecific biodiversity of exploited fishes

  • Nils Ryman
  • Fred Utter
  • Linda Laikre
Papers

Keywords

Intraspecific Biodiversity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achieng, A.P. (1990) The impact of the introduction of Nile perch,Lates niloticus (L.) on the fisheries of Lake Victoria.J. Fish Biol. 37 (Suppl. A), 17–24.Google Scholar
  2. Allendorf, F.W. (1986) Genetic drift and the loss of alleles versus heterozygosity.Zoo Biol. 5, 181–90.Google Scholar
  3. Allendorf, F.W. (1988) Conservation biology of fishes.Conserv. Biol. 2, 145–8.Google Scholar
  4. Allendorf, F.W. (1991) Ecological and genetic effects of fish introductions: synthesis and recommendations.Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 48, 178–81.Google Scholar
  5. Allendorf, F.W. and Leary, R.F. (1988) Conservation and distribution of genetic variation in a polytypic species, the cutthroat trout.Conserv. Biol. 2, 170–84.Google Scholar
  6. Allendorf, F.W. and Phelps, S.R. (1980) Loss of genetic variation in a hatchery stock of cutthroat trout.Trans Am. Fish. Soc. 109, 537–43.Google Scholar
  7. Allendorf, F.W. and Ryman, N. (1987) Genetic management of hatchery stocks. In Ryman, N. and Utter, F., edsPopulation Genetics and Fishery Management. Seattle and London: Washington Sea Grant Publications/Univ. Washington Press, pp. 141–59.Google Scholar
  8. Allendorf, F.W. and Utter, F.M. (1979) Population genetics.Fish Physiol. 8, 407–54.Google Scholar
  9. Allendorf, F., Ryman, N. and Utter, F. (1987) Genetics and fishery management: past, present, and future. In Ryman, N. and Utter, F., eds.Population Genetics and Fishery Management. Seattle and London: Washington Sea Grant Publications/Univ. Washington Press, pp. 1–19.Google Scholar
  10. Andrews, C. (1988) The conservation of fish by zoos and aquaria. In Dresser, B.L., Reece, R.W. and Maruska, E.J., edsProc. 5th World Conf. Breeding Endangered Species in Captivity, October 9–12, 1988, Cincinnati, Ohio. Cincinnati, OH: Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden, pp. 9–20.Google Scholar
  11. Andrews, C. (1990) The ornamental fish trade and fish conservation.J. Fish Biol. 37 (Suppl. A), 53–9.Google Scholar
  12. Anonymous (1991) Endangered marine finfish: a useful concept? Report from the Marine Fisheries Section and Endangered Species Committee.Fisheries 16, 23–7.Google Scholar
  13. Antonovics, J. (1990) Genetically based measures of uniqueness. In Orians, G.H., Brown, G.M.J., Kunin, W.E. and Swierzbinski, J.E., eds.The Preservation and Valuation of Biological Resources. Seattle and London: Univ. Washington Press, pp. 94–119.Google Scholar
  14. Atkinson, I. (1989) Introduced animals and extinction. In Western, D. and Pearl, M.C., eds.Conservation for the Twenty-first Century. New York and Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, pp. 54–69.Google Scholar
  15. Avise, J.C. (1994)Molecular Markers, Natural History and Evolution. New York and London: Chapman & Hall. 511 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Baker, J.M. (1983) Impact of oil pollution on living resources.Environmentalist 3 (Suppl. 4), 1–48.Google Scholar
  17. Baltz, D.M. (1991) Introduced fishes in marine systems and inland seas.Biol. Conserv. 56, 151–77.Google Scholar
  18. Beverton, R.H.J. (1990) Small marine pelagic fish and the threat of fishing; are they endangered?J. Fish Biol. 37 (Suppl. A), 5–16.Google Scholar
  19. Brouha, P. (1994) Population growth: thereal problem.Fisheries 19, 4.Google Scholar
  20. Campton, D.E. (1987) Natural hybridization and introgression in fishes. In Ryman, N. and Utter, F., eds.Population Genetics and Fishery Management. Seattle and London: Washington Sea Grant Publications/Univ. Washington Press, pp. 161–92.Google Scholar
  21. Campton, D.E. (1990) Application of biochemical and molecular genetic markers to analysis of hybridization. In Whitmore, D.H., ed.Electrophoretic and Isoelectric Focusing Techniques in Fisheries Management. Ann Arbor: CRC Press, pp. 241–63.Google Scholar
  22. Carvalho, G.R. (1993) Evolutionary aspects of fish distribution: genetic variability and adaptation.J. Fish Biol. 43 (Suppl. A), 53–73.Google Scholar
  23. Carvalho, G.R. and Pitcher, T.J. (eds) (1994)Molecular Genetics in Fisheries. London: Chapman & Hall. 131 pp.Google Scholar
  24. Chesser, R.K., Smith, M.H. and Brisbin, I.L. jun. (1980) Management and maintenance of genetic variability in endangered species.Int. Zoo Yb. 20, 146–54.Google Scholar
  25. Crossman, E.J. (1991) Introduced freshwater fishes: a review of the North American perspective with emphasis on Canada.Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 48, 46–57.Google Scholar
  26. Crow, J.F. and Kimura, M. (1970)An Introduction to Population Genetics Theory. New York, NY: Harper and Row. 591 pp.Google Scholar
  27. Echelle, A.F., Echelle, A.A. and Edds, D.R. (1989) Conservation genetics of a spring-dwelling desert fish, the Pecos Gambusia (Gambusia nobilis, Poeciliidae).Conserv. Biol. 3, 159–69.Google Scholar
  28. Egidius, E., Hansen, L.P., Jonsson, B. and Nævdal, G. (1991) Mutual impact of wild and cultured Atlantic salmon in Norway.J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer 47, 404–10.Google Scholar
  29. Elvira, B. (1990) Iberian endemic freshwater fishes and their conservation status in Spain.J. Fish Biol. 37 (Suppl. A), 231–2.Google Scholar
  30. FAO (1993) Report of the Expert Consultation on Utilization and Conservation of Aquatic Genetic Resources. Grottaferrata, Italy, 9–13 November, 1992.FAO Fish. Rep. No. 491. 58 pp.Google Scholar
  31. FAO/UNEP (Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations, and United Nations Environmental Program) (1981) Conservation of the genetic resources of fish: problems and recommendations. Report of the Expert Consultation of the Genetic Resources of Fish, Rome, 9–13 June 1980.FAO Fish. tech. Pap. No. 217. 43 pp.Google Scholar
  32. Ferguson, M. (1994) The role of molecular genetic markers in the management of cultured fishes.Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 4, 351–73.Google Scholar
  33. Fernando, C.H. (1991) Impacts of fish introductions in tropical Asia and America.Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 48, 24–32.Google Scholar
  34. Fiedler, P.L. and Jain, S.K. (eds) (1992)Conservation Biology. The Theory and Practice of Nature Conservation, Preservation, and Management. New York and London: Chapman & Hall. 507 pp.Google Scholar
  35. Frankel, O.H. and Soulé, M.E. (1981)Conservation and Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. 327 pp.Google Scholar
  36. Franklin, I.R. (1980) Evolutionary change in small populations. In Soulé, M.E. and Wilcox, B.A., eds.Conservation Biology. An Evolutionary-Ecological Perspective. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer, pp. 135–49.Google Scholar
  37. Fuerst, P.A. and Maruyama, T. (1986) Considerations on the conservation of alleles and of genic heterozygosity in small managed populations.Zoo Biol. 5, 171–9.Google Scholar
  38. Garcia-Marin, J.L., Vila, A. and Pla, C. (1990) Genetic variation in the Iberian toothcarp,Aphanius iberus (Cuvier & Valenciennes).J. Fish Biol. 37 (Suppl. A), 233–4.Google Scholar
  39. Gilpin, M.E. and Soulé, M. (1986) Minimum viable populations: processes of species extinction. In Soulé, M.E., ed.Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer, pp. 19–34.Google Scholar
  40. Grant, W.S. (1984) Biochemical population genetics of Atlantic herring,Clupea harengus.Copeia,2, 357–64.Google Scholar
  41. Grassle, J.F. (1989) Species diversity in deep-sea communities.Trends Ecol. Evol. 4, 12–15.Google Scholar
  42. Groombridge, B. (ed.) (1993)1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN. 286 pp.Google Scholar
  43. Guyomard, R. (1989) Diversité génétique de la truite commune.Bull. fr. Pêche Piscic. 314, 118–35.Google Scholar
  44. Hedgecock, D., Chow, V. and Waples, R.S. (1992) Effective population numbers of shellfish broodstocks estimated from temporal variance in allelic frequenices.Aquaculture 108, 215–32.Google Scholar
  45. Hedgecock, D., Siri, P. and Strong, D.R. (eds) (1994)Endangered Pacific Salmonids. Special Section ofConserv. Biol. 8, pp. 863–94.Google Scholar
  46. Henriksen, A., Lien, L., Rosseland, B.O., Traaen, T.S. and Sevaldrud, I.S. (1989) Lake acidification in Norway: present and predicted fish status.Ambio 18, 314–21.Google Scholar
  47. Hesthagen, T. and Hansen, L.P. (1991) Estimates of the annual loss of Atlantic salmon,Salmo salar L., in Norway due to acidification.Aquacult. Fish. Manage. 22, 85–91.Google Scholar
  48. Hindar, K., Ryman, N. and Utter, F. (1991a) Genetic effects of aquaculture on natural fish populations.Aquaculture 98, 259–61.Google Scholar
  49. Hindar, K., Ryman, N. and Utter, F. (1991b) Genetic effects of cultured fish on natural fish populations.Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 48, 945–57.Google Scholar
  50. Holcik, J. (1991) Fish introductions in Europe with particular reference to its central and eastern part.Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 48, 13–23.Google Scholar
  51. Hubbs, C.L. (1955) Hybridization between fish species in nature.Syst. Zool. 4, 1–20.Google Scholar
  52. Hynes, J.D., Brown, E.H., Helle, J.H., Ryman, N. and Webster, D.A. (1981) Guidelines for the culture of fish stocks for resource management.Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 38, 1867–76.Google Scholar
  53. Johnsen, B.O. and Jensen, A.J. (1991) TheGyrodactylus story in Norway.Aquaculture 98, 289–302.Google Scholar
  54. Jones, S.R. (1994) Endangered Species Act battles.Fisheries 19, 22–5.Google Scholar
  55. Jörstad, K.E., King, D.P.F. and Nævdal, G. (1991) Population structure of Atlantic herring,Clupea harengus L.J. Fish Biol. 39 (Suppl. A), 43–52.Google Scholar
  56. Kaufman, L. (1988a) Marine biodiversity: the sleeping dragon.Conserv. Biol. 2, 307–8.Google Scholar
  57. Kaufman, L. (1988b) Challenges to fish faunal conservation programs as illustrated by the captive biology of Lake Victoria cichlids. In Dresser, B.L., Reece, R.W. and Maruska, E.J., eds.Proc. 5th World Conf. Breeding Endangered Species in Captivity, October 9–12, 1988, Cincinnati, Ohio. Cincinnati, OH: Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden, pp. 105–20.Google Scholar
  58. Kaufman, L. (1993) The challenge of the world's great lakes.Conserv. Biol. 7, 447–9.Google Scholar
  59. Kaufman, L. and Cohen, A.S. (1993) The Great Lakes of Africa.Conserv. Biol. 7, 632–3.Google Scholar
  60. Lande, R. and Barrowclough, G.F. (1987) Effective population size, genetic variation, and their use in population management. In Soulé, M.E., ed.Viable Populations for Conservation, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, pp. 87–123.Google Scholar
  61. Larkin, P.A. (1981) A perspective on population genetics and salmon management.Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 38, 1469–75.Google Scholar
  62. Leary, R.F., Allendorf, F.W. and Knudsen, K.L. (1985) Developmental instability as an indicator of reduced genetic variation in hatchery trout.Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 114, 230–35.Google Scholar
  63. Leary, R.F., Allendorf, F.W. and Forbes, S.H. (1993) Conservation genetics and bull trout in the Columbia and Klamath River drainages.Conserv. Biol. 7, 856–65.Google Scholar
  64. Loftus, K.H. (1976) Science for Canada's fisheries rehabilitation needs.J. Fish. Res. B Can. 33, 1822–57.Google Scholar
  65. Loudenslager, E.J., Rinne, J.N., Gall, G.A.E. and David, R.E. (1986) Biochemical genetic studies of native Arizona and New Mexico trout.S'West. Nat. 31, 221–34.Google Scholar
  66. Lowe-McConnell, R.H. (1990) Summary address: rare fish, problems, progress and prospects for conservation.J. Fish Biol. 37 (Suppl. A), 263–70.Google Scholar
  67. Mace, G.M. (1993) The status of proposals to redefine the IUCN threatened species categories. In Groombridge, B., ed.1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN, pp. XLVIII-LIII.Google Scholar
  68. Mace, G.M. and Lande, R. (1991) Assessing extinction threats: toward a reevaluation of IUCN threatened species categories.Conserv. Biol. 5, 148–57.Google Scholar
  69. McNeely, J.A., Miller, K.R., Reid, W.V., Mittermeier, R.A. and Werner, T.B. (1990)Conserving the World's Biological Diversity. Washington, DC: IUCN; Gland, Switzerland: WRI, CI, WWF-US and the World Bank. 193 pp.Google Scholar
  70. Maitland, P.S. and Evans, D. (1986) The role of captive breeding in the conservation of fish species.Int. Zoo Yb. 24/25, 66–74.Google Scholar
  71. Manzi, J.J. (1989) Aquaculture research priorities for the 1990s.World Aquacult. 20, 29–32.Google Scholar
  72. Maruyama, T. and Fuerst, P.A. (1984) Population bottlenecks and nonequilibrium models in population genetics. I. Allele numbers when populations evolve from zero variability.Genetics 108, 745–63.Google Scholar
  73. Maruyamam, T. and Fuerst, P.A. (1985) Population bottlenecks and nonequilibrium models in population genetics. II. Number of alleles in a small population that was formed by a recent bottleneck.Genetics 111, 675–89.Google Scholar
  74. May, R.M. (1988) How many species are there on earth?Science 241, 1441–9.Google Scholar
  75. Meffe, G. (1986) Conservation genetics and the management of endangered fishes.Fisheries 11, 14–23.Google Scholar
  76. Meffe, G.K. (1990) Genetic approaches to conservation of rare fishes: examples from North American desert species.J. Fish Biol. 37 (Suppl. A), 105–112.Google Scholar
  77. Meffe, G.K. and Carroll, C.R. (1994)Principles of Conservation Biology. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.Google Scholar
  78. Meffe, G.K. and Vrijenhoek, R.C. (1988) Conservation genetics in the management of desert fishes.Conserv. Biol. 2, 157–69.Google Scholar
  79. Meffe, G.K., Ehrlich, A.H. and Ehrenfeld, D. (1993) Human population control: the missing agenda.Conserv. Biol. 7, 1–3.Google Scholar
  80. Micklin, P.P. (1988) Desiccation of the Aral Sea: a water management disaster in the Soviet Union.Science 241, 1170–76.Google Scholar
  81. Miller, F.F., Williams, J.D. and Williams, J.E. (1989) Extinction of North American fishes during the last century.Fisheries 14, 22–38.Google Scholar
  82. Mork, J., Ryman, N., Ståhl, G., Utter, F. and Sundnes, G. (1985) Genetic variation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) throughout its range.Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 42, 1580–87.Google Scholar
  83. Moyle, P.B. (1986) Fish introductions in North America: patterns and ecological impact. In Mooney, H.A. and Drake, J.A., eds.Ecology of Biological Invasions of North America and Hawaii, New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 27–43.Google Scholar
  84. Moyle, P.B. and Leidy, R.A. (1992) Loss of biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems: evidence from fish faunas. In Fiedler, P.L. and Jain, S.K., edsConservation Biology. The Theory and Practice of Nature Conservation, Preservation and Management. New York and London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 127–169.Google Scholar
  85. Nash, C.E. and Kensler, C.B. (1990) A global overview of aquaculture production in 1987.World Aquacult. 21, 104–12.Google Scholar
  86. Nehlsen, W., Williams, J.E. and Lichatowich, J.A. (1991) Pacific salmon at the crossroads: stocks at risk from California, Oregon, Idaho, and Washington.Fisheries 16, 4–21.Google Scholar
  87. Nei, M. (1987)Molecular Evolutionary Genetics. New York, NY: Columbia Univ. Press. 512 pp.Google Scholar
  88. Nei, M., Maruyama, T. and Chakraborty, R. (1975) The bottleneck effect and genetic variability in populations.Evolution 29, 1–10.Google Scholar
  89. Nelson, K. and Soulé, M. (1987) Genetical conservation of exploited fishes. In Ryman, N. and Utter, F., eds.Population Genetics and Fishery Management. Seattle and London: Washington Sea Grant Publications/Univ. Washington Press, pp. 345–68.Google Scholar
  90. NINA (Norwegian Institute for Nature Research) (ed.) (1990)Maintenance of genetic resources and ecosystems in sustainable development. Recommendations by the International Conference on Conservation of Genetic Resources for Sustainable Development, Röros, Norway, September 10–14, 1990. Trondheim, Norway: NINA. 20 pp.Google Scholar
  91. NPPC (Northwest Power Plant Council) (1987)Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Portland: NPPC. 140 pp.Google Scholar
  92. Orians, G.H., Brown, G.M.J., Kunin, W.E. and Swierzbinski, J.E. (eds) (1990)The Preservation and Valuation of Biological Resources. Seattle and London: Univ. Washington Press. 301 pp.Google Scholar
  93. Pella, J.J. and Milner, G.B. (1987) Use of genetic marks in stock composition analysis. In Ryman, N. and Utter, F., eds.Population Genetics and Fishery Management. Seattle and London: Washington Sea Grant Publications/Univ. Washington Press, pp. 247–76.Google Scholar
  94. Philipp, D.P. (1991) Genetic implications of introducing Florida largemouth bass,Micropterus salmonides floridanus. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 48, 58–65.Google Scholar
  95. Philipp, D.P., Childers, W.F. and Whitt, G.S. (1983) A biochemical genetic evaluation of the northern and Florida subspecies of largemouth bass.Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 112, 1–20.Google Scholar
  96. Quattro, J.M. and Vrijenhoek, R.C. (1989) Fitness differences among remnant populations of the endangered Sonoran topminnow.Science 245, 976–8.Google Scholar
  97. Ray, G.C. (1988) Ecological diversity in coastal zones and oceans. In Wilson, E.O. and Peter, F.M., eds.Biodiversity. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, pp. 36–50.Google Scholar
  98. Ricker, W.E. (1981) Changes in the average size and average age of Pacific salmon.Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 38, 1636–56.Google Scholar
  99. Ricker, W.E. (1982) Size and age of British Columbia sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in relation to environmental factors and the fishery.Can. tech. Rep. Fish. aquat. Sci. No. 1115, 117 pp.Google Scholar
  100. Riggs, L. (1990) Principles for genetic conservation and production quality. Report for the Northwest Power Planning Council (NNNP), Portland, OR, USA (Contract No. C90-005). 20 pp. plus appendices.Google Scholar
  101. Ros, T. (1981) Salmonids in the Lake Vänern area. In Ryman, N., ed.Fish Gene Pools (Ecological Bulletins, 34). Stockholm: Editorial Service, FRN, pp. 21–32.Google Scholar
  102. Ryman, N. (ed.) (1981)Fish Gene Pools (Ecological Bulletins, 34). Stockholm: Editorial Service, FRN. 111 pp.Google Scholar
  103. Ryman, N. (1983) Patterns of distribution of biochemical genetic variation in salmonids: differences between species.Aquaculture 33, 1–21.Google Scholar
  104. Ryman, N. (1991) Conservation genetics considerations in fishery management.J. Fish Biol. 39 (Suppl. A), 211–24.Google Scholar
  105. Ryman, N. (1994) Supportive breeding and effective population size: differences between inbreeding and variance effective numbers.Conserv. Biol. 8, 888–90.Google Scholar
  106. Ryman, N. and Laikre, L. (1991) Effects of supportive breeding on the genetically effective population size.Conserv. Biol. 5, 325–9.Google Scholar
  107. Ryman, N. and Ståhl, G. (1980) Genetic changes in hatchery stocks of brown trout (Salmo trutta).Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 37, 82–7.Google Scholar
  108. Ryman, N. and Ståhl, G. (1981) Genetic perspectives of the identification and conservation of Scandinavian stocks of fish.Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 38, 1562–75.Google Scholar
  109. Ryman, N. and Utter, F. (eds) (1987)Population Genetics and Fishery Management. Seattle and London: Washington Sea Grant Publications/Univ. Washington Press. 420 pp.Google Scholar
  110. Ryman, N., Lagercrantz, U., Andersson, L., Chakraborty, R. and Rosenberg, R. (1984) Lack of correspondence between genetic and morphologic variability patterns in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus).Heredity 53, 687–704.Google Scholar
  111. Ryman, N., Utter, F. and Laikre, L. (1994) Protection of aquatic biodiversity. Keynote address for session on Protection of Biotic Diversity. In Voigtlander, C.W., ed.The State of the World's Fisheries Resources. Proc. World Fisheries Congress, Athens, Greece, May 3–8, 1992. New Dehli: Oxford & IBH, pp. 92–115.Google Scholar
  112. Ryman, N., Jorde, P.E. and Laikre, L. Supportive breeding and variance effective population size.Conserv. Biol. (in press).Google Scholar
  113. Ryman, N., Utter, F. and Hindar, K. (1995) Introgression, supportive breeding, and genetic conservation. In Ballou, J.D., Foose, T. and Gilpin, M. eds.Population Management for Survival and Recovery. New York, NY: Columbia Univ. Press, pp. 341–365.Google Scholar
  114. Safina, C. (1993) Bluefin tuna in the west Atlantic: negligent management and the making of an endangered species.Conserv. Biol. 7, 229–34.Google Scholar
  115. Schonewald-Cox, C.M. and Bayless, J.W. (1983) Questions posed by managers. In Schonewald-Cox, C.M., Chambers, S.M., MacBryde, B. and Thomas, W.L., eds.Genetics and Conservation: A Reference for Managing Wild Animal and Plant Populations. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings, pp. 485–99.Google Scholar
  116. Schonewald-Cox, C.M., Chambers, S.M., MacBryde, B. and Thomas, W.L. (eds) (1983)Genetics and Conservation: A Reference for Managing Wild Animal and Plant Populations. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings. 722 pp.Google Scholar
  117. Schwartz, F.J. (1972) World literature to fish hybrids, with an analysis by family, species, and hybrid. Publs Gulf Coast Res. Lab. Mus., Ocean Springs, MS, USA, No. 3. 328 pp.Google Scholar
  118. Schwartz, F.J. (1981) World literature to fish hybrids, with an analysis by family, species, and hybrid: Supplement I. Washington, DC: US Dept. Commerce,NOAA tech. Rep. NMFS SSRF-750. 507 pp.Google Scholar
  119. Shaklee, J.B. (1983) The utilization of isozymes as gene markers in fisheries management and conservation. In Ratazzi, C.M., Scandalios, J.G. and Whitt, G.S., eds.Isozymes: Current Topics in Biological and Medical Research, Vol. 11.Medical and Other Applications. New York: Alan R. Liss, pp. 213–47.Google Scholar
  120. Simberloff, D. and Cox, J. (1987) Consequences and costs of conservation corridors.Conserv. Biol. 1, 63–71.Google Scholar
  121. Smith, P.J., Francis, R.I.C.C. and McVeagh, M. (1991) Loss of genetic diversity due to fishing pressure.Fish. Res. 10, 309–16.Google Scholar
  122. Soulé, M.E. (1980) Thresholds for survival: maintaining fitness and evolutionary potential. In Soulé, M.E. and Wilcox, B.A., eds.Conservation Biology. An Evolutionary-Ecological Perspective. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer, pp. 151–69.Google Scholar
  123. Soulé, M.E. (ed.) (1986)Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer. 584 pp.Google Scholar
  124. Soulé, M.E. (ed.) (1987)Viable Populations for Conservation. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 189 pp.Google Scholar
  125. Soulé, M.E. and Simberloff, D. (1986) What do genetics and ecology tell us about the design of nature reserves?Biol. Conserv. 35, 19–40.Google Scholar
  126. Soulé, M.E. and Wilcox, B.A. (eds) (1980)Conservation Biology. An Evolutionary-Ecological Perspective. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer. 395 pp.Google Scholar
  127. Ståhl, G. (1983) Differences in the amount and distribution of genetic variation between natural populations and hatchery stocks of Atlantic salmon.Aquaculture 33, 23–32.Google Scholar
  128. Ståhl, G. and Hindar, K. (1988) Genetisk struktur hos norsk laks: status og perspektiver. Rapport fra fiskeforskningen. Direktoratet for Naturforvaltning. No. 1, 1988. 57 pp. (in Norwegian).Google Scholar
  129. Stephenson, R.L. and Kornfield, I. (1990) Reappearance of spawning herring on Georges Bank: population resurgence not recolonisation.Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 47, 1060–64.Google Scholar
  130. Stuart, H. and Johnson, J.E. (1981) A refuge for southwestern fish.New Mexcio Wildlife 26, 2–5.Google Scholar
  131. Taylor, E.B. (1991) A review of local adaptation in Salmonidae, with particular reference to Pacific and Atlantic salmon.Aquaculture 98, 185–207.Google Scholar
  132. Turner, B.J. (1983) Genic variation and differentiation of remnant natural populations of the desert pupfish.Cyprinodon macularius. Evolution 37, 690–700.Google Scholar
  133. Utter, F.M. (1981) Biological criteria for definition of species and distinct intraspecific populations and salmonids under the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973.Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 38, 1626–35.Google Scholar
  134. Vincent, R.E. (1960) Some influences of domestication upon three stocks of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill).Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 89, 35–52.Google Scholar
  135. Vrijenhoek, R.C., Douglas, M.E. and Meffe, G.K. (1985) Conservation genetics of endangered fish populations in Arizona.Science 229, 400–402.Google Scholar
  136. Waples, R.S. (1987) A multispecies approach to the analysis of gene flow in marine shore fishes.Evolution 41, 385–400.Google Scholar
  137. Waples, R.S. (1991a) Genetic interactions between hatchery and wild salmonids: lessons from the Pacific Northwest.Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 48 (Suppl. 1), 124–33.Google Scholar
  138. Waples, R.S. (1991b) Pacific salmon and the definition of “species” under the Endangered Species Act.Mar. Fish. Rev. 53, 11–22.Google Scholar
  139. Waples, R.S. and Do, C. (1994) Genetic risk associated with supplementation of Pacific salmonids: captive broodstock programs.Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 51 (Suppl. 1), 310–329.Google Scholar
  140. Ward, R.D., Woodwark, M. and Skibinski, D.O.F. (1994) A comparison of genetic diversity levels in marine, freshwater, and anadromous fishes.J. Fish Biol. 44, 213–32.Google Scholar
  141. Welcomme, R.L. (1986) International measures for the control of introductions of aquatic organisms.Fisheries 11, 4–9.Google Scholar
  142. Welcomme, R.L. (1988) International introductions of inland aquatic species.FAO Fish. tech. Pap. 294, 318 pp.Google Scholar
  143. Western, D. and Pearl, M.C. (eds) (1989)Conservation for the Twenty-first Century. New York and Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. 365 pp.Google Scholar
  144. Wikramanayake, E.D. (1990) Conservation of endemic rain forest fish of Sri Lanka: results of a translocation experiment.Conserv. Biol. 4, 32–8.Google Scholar
  145. Williams, C.D. (1994) Aquatic resources and the Endangered Species Act.Fisheries 19, 19–21.Google Scholar
  146. Wilson, E.O. and Peter, F.M. (eds) (1988)Biodiversity. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 521 pp.Google Scholar
  147. Wright, S. (1981) Contemporary Pacific salmon fisheries management.N. Am. J. Fish. Manage. 1, 29–40.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nils Ryman
    • 1
  • Fred Utter
    • 2
  • Linda Laikre
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Population GeneticsStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden
  2. 2.School of FisheriesUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations