International study programs have contributed to the diffusion of modern irrigation technologies, approaches, and problems. But the patterns and processes of international travel have received little attention to date. This paper examines foreign visits to the US Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) from South Asia and the Middle East from 1946 to 1990. Using data from the Foreign Activities Branch of the USBR, we compare the participation rates from 16 countries in South Asia and the Middle East. India, Turkey, and Egypt had the highest rates of participation, followed by Pakistan, Iran, and Israel. The frequency of visits is influenced by political, economic, cultural, and institutional factors. But the most important factors appear to be foreign relations and geopolitics. Given the problems faced by national irrigation bureaucracies around the world, there is a need to focus more directly on political factors than in the past.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Carruthers I.D. (Ed). 1982.Aid for the Development of Irrigation. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris
Constable D., Russell T. & Foley B. 1989. Strategy and programme development for international irrigation training.Irrigation and Drainage Systems 3: 169–180.
Coward E.W. (Ed). 1980.Irrigation and Agricultural Development in Asia: Perspectives from the Social Sciences. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.
Halmos E.E. 1968. Floyd Dominy of BuRec and the Engineer. Photocopy.
International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage [ICID]. 1987.Transactions of the Thirteenth International Congress, Morocco. Question 41: Improving water management through training. New Delhi.
Lee L.B. 1980.Reclaiming the American West: An Historiography and Guide. Santa Barbara: ABC — Clio.
Michel A. 1967.The Indus Rivers: A Study of the Effects of Partition. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Moore M. 1991. The Bureau of Reclamation's new mandate for irrigation water conservation: purposes and policy alternatives.Water Resources Research 27: 145–155.
Nobe K.C. & Sampath R.K. (Eds). 1986.Irrigation Management in Developing Countries: Current Issues and Approaches. Westview, Boulder.
Pratt G.O. 1953. Foreign activities of the Bureau of Reclamation. Typescript.
Robinson M.C. 1979.Water for the West: The Bureau of Reclamation 1902–1977. Public Works Historical Society, Chicago.
U.S. Agency for International Development. 1986. Regional Irrigation Support for Asia and the Near East (ISPAN). Project Paper. Washington, D.C.
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. 1964–1990.Annual Reports.
--. 1965. Summary of Bureau of Reclamation of Foreign Activities, 1902–1965. Typescript.
--. 1980–89. Yearly Training Branch Reports. Typescript.
--. 1990. Trainees Report. Typescript.
--. n.d. Reaching out: foreign trainee program. Pamphlet.
U.S. Department of the Interior. 1972.Federal Reclamation and Related Laws Annotated. Vol. I: Through 1942. Washington, DC.
Uphoff N., Ramamurthy P. & Steiner R. 1988. Improving Performance of Irrigation Bureaucracies: Suggestions for Systematic Analysis and Agency Reorientation. Irrigation study group, Cornell University, Ithaca.
About this article
Cite this article
Wescoat, J.L., Smith, R. & Schaad, D. Visits to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation from South Asia and the Middle East, 1946–1990: An indicator of changing international programs and politics. Irrig Drainage Syst 6, 55–67 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01102866
- International irrigation
- U.S. Bureau of Reclamation
- South Asia
- Middle East