User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 157–190

Using dynamic user models in the recognition of the plans of the user

  • Liliana Ardissono
  • Dario Sestero
Article

Abstract

This paper is concerned with information-seeking dialogues in a restricted domain (we consider a consultation system for a Computer Science Department, delivering information about the various tasks that the users may want to perform: for example, how to access the library, get information about the courses of the Department, etc.) and presents a framework where a plan recognition and a user modeling component are integrated to cooperate in the task of identifying the user's plans and goals. The focus of the paper is centered on the techniques used for building the user model and exploiting it in the determination of the user's intentions. For this task, we use stereotypes and we propose some inference rules for expanding the user model by inferring the user's beliefs from both the sentences s/he utters and the information stored in the plan library of the system, that describes the actions in the domain. Moreover, we introduce some disambiguation rules that are applied to the information in the user model for restricting the set of ambiguous hypotheses on the user's plans and goals to the most plausible ones. This also simplifies a further clarification dialogue if it is necessary for a precise identification of the user's intentions.

Key words

User modeling plan recognition information-seeking dialogue natural language pragmatics 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, J. F. and C. R. Perrault: 1980, ‘Analyzing intention in utterances’.Artificial Intelligence 15, 143–178.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, J. R.: 1983, ‘Recognizing intentions from natural language utterances’. In: M. Brady and R. C. Berwick (eds.):Computational models of discourse. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 107–166.Google Scholar
  3. Ardissono, L., L. Lesmo, P. Pogliano and P. Terenzani: 1991, ‘Representation of determiners in natural language’. In:Proc. 12th IJCAI. Sydney, pp. 997–1002.Google Scholar
  4. Ardissono, L., L. Lesmo, A. Lombardo and D. Sestero: 1993a, ‘Production of cooperative answers on the basis of partial knowledge in information-seeking dialogues’. In:Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence n. 728: Advances in Artificial Intelligence. Berlin: Springer Verlag, pp. 254–265.Google Scholar
  5. Ardissono, L., A. Lombardo and D. Sestero: 1993b, ‘A flexible approach to cooperative response generation in information-seeking dialogues’. In:Proc. 31st Annual Meeting ACL. Columbus, pp. 274–276.Google Scholar
  6. Brajnik, G. and C. Tasso: 1994, ‘A shell for developing non-monotonic user modeling systems’.Int. Journal of Human-Computer Studies 40, 31–62.Google Scholar
  7. Cahour, B.: 1992, ‘How do experts categorize the interlocutor during consultation dialogues?’. In:Proc. 3rd Int. Workshop on User Modeling. Wadern, pp. 84–93.Google Scholar
  8. Calistri-Yeh, R. J.: 1991, ‘Utilizing user models to handle ambiguity and misconceptions in robust plan recognition’.User Modeling and User-Adopted Interaction 1, 289–322.Google Scholar
  9. Carberry, S.: 1988, ‘Modeling the user's plans and goals’.Computatoinal Linguistics 14, 23–37.Google Scholar
  10. Carberry, S.: 1990a, ‘Incorporating default inferences into plan recognition’. In:Proc. 8th Conf. AAAI. Boston, pp. 471–478.Google Scholar
  11. Carberry, S.: 1990b,Plan Recognition in Natural Language Dialogue. ACL-MIT Press.Google Scholar
  12. Charniak, E. and R. Goldman: 1991, ‘A probabilistic model of plan recognition’. In:Proc. 9th Conf. AAAI. Anaheim, CA, USA, pp. 14–19.Google Scholar
  13. Chin, D. N.: 1988, ‘User models and discourse models’.Computatoinal Linguistics 14, 86–87.Google Scholar
  14. Chin, D. N.: 1989, ‘KNOME: Modeling what the user knows in UC’. In: A. Kobsa and W. Wahlster (eds.):User models in dialog systems. Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
  15. Cohen, P. R. and H. Levesque: 1990, ‘Intention is choice with commitment’.Artificial Intelligence 42, 213–261.Google Scholar
  16. Cohen, R.: 1988, ‘On the relationship between user models and discourse models’.Computational Linguistics 14, 88–90.Google Scholar
  17. DiEugenio, B. and L. Lesmo: 1987, ‘Representation and interpretation of determiners in natural language’. In:Proc. 10th IJCAI. Milano, pp. 648–653.Google Scholar
  18. Eller, R. M. and S. Carberry: 1992, ‘A meta-rule approach to flexible plan recognition in dialogue’.User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 2, 27–54.Google Scholar
  19. Grosz, B. J. and C. L. Sidner: 1986, ‘Attention, intentions, and the structure of discourse’.Computational Linguistics 12, 175–204.Google Scholar
  20. Jameson, A.: 1992, ‘Generalizing the double-stereotype approach: A psychological perspective’. In:Proc. 3rd Int. Workshop on User Modeling. Wadern, pp. 69–83.Google Scholar
  21. Kaplan, S. J.: 1982, ‘Cooperative responses from a portable natural language query system’.Artificial Intelligence 19, 165–187.Google Scholar
  22. Kass, R. and T. Finin: 1987, ‘Rules for the implicit acquisition of knowledge about the user’. In:Proc. 6th Conf. AAAI. Seattle, pp. 295–300.Google Scholar
  23. Kass, R. and T. Finin: 1988, ‘Modeling the user in natural language systems’.Computational Linguistics 3(14), 5–22.Google Scholar
  24. Kass, R.: 1991, ‘Building a user model implicitly from a cooperative advisory dialog’.User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 3(1), 203–258.Google Scholar
  25. Kautz, H. A. and J. F. Allen: 1986, ‘Generalized plan recognition’. In:Proc. 5th COnf. AAAI. Philadelphia, pp. 32–37.Google Scholar
  26. Kautz, H.: 1990, ‘A circumscriptive theory of plan recognition’. In: P. R. Cohen, J. Morgan and M. E. Pollack (eds.):Intentions in communication. MIT Press, pp. 105–133.Google Scholar
  27. Kobsa, A.: 1988, ‘User models and discourse models: United they stand...’.Computational Linguistics 14, 91–94.Google Scholar
  28. Kobsa, A.: 1990, ‘Modeling the user's conceptual knowledge in BGP-MS, a user modeling shell system’.Computational Intelligence 6, 193–108.Google Scholar
  29. Konolige, K. and M. E. Pollack: 1989, ‘Ascribing plans to agents. Preliminary report’. In:Proc. 11th IJCAI. Detroit, MI, pp. 924–930.Google Scholar
  30. Lambert, L. and S. Carberry: 1991, ‘A tripartite plan-based model of dialogue’. In:Proc. 29th Annual Meeting ACL. Berkely, pp. 47–54.Google Scholar
  31. Lesmo, L. and P. Terenziani: 1988, ‘Interpretation of noun-phrases in intensional contexts’. In:Proc. Coling Budapest. Budapest, pp. 378–383.Google Scholar
  32. McArthur, G. L.: 1988, ‘Reasoning about knowledge and belief: a survey’.Computatoinal Intelligence 4, 223–243.Google Scholar
  33. Morik, K.: 1989, ‘User models and conversational settings: Modeling the user's wants’. In: A. Kobsa and W. Wahlster (eds.):User models in dialog systems. Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
  34. Ng, H. T. and R. J. Mooney: 1990, ‘On the role of coherence in abductive explanation’. In:Proc. 8th Conf. AAAI. Boston.Google Scholar
  35. Paris, C. L.: 1988, ‘Tailoring object descriptions to a user's level of expertise’.Computational Linguistics 14(3), 64–78.Google Scholar
  36. Pollack, M. E.: 1990, ‘Plans as complex mental attitudes’. In: P. R. Cohen, J. Morgan and M. E. Pollack (eds.):Intentions in communication. MIT Press, pp. 77–103.Google Scholar
  37. Raskutti, B. and I. Zukerman: 1991, ‘Generation and selection of likely interpretations during plan recognition in task-oriented consultation systems’.User Modeling and User-Adapted Interactions 1, 323–353.Google Scholar
  38. Raskutti, B. and I. Zukerman: 1994, ‘Query and response generation during information-seeking interactions’. In:Proc. 4th Conf. on User Modeling. Hyannis, MA, pp. 25–30.Google Scholar
  39. Rich, E.: 1979, ‘User modelling via stereotypes’.Cognitive Science 3, 329–354.Google Scholar
  40. Stickel, M. E.: 1988, ‘A prolog-like inference system for computing minimum-cost abductive explanations in natural-language interpretation’. In:Proc. Int. Computer Science Conference. Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  41. Van Beek, P. and R. Cohen: 1991, ‘Resolving plan ambiguity for cooperative response generation’. In:Proc. 12th IJCAI. Sydney, pp. 938–944.Google Scholar
  42. Van Beek, P., R. Cohen and K. Schmidt: 1993, ‘From plan critiquing to clarification dialogue for cooperative response generation’.Computational Intelligence 9, 132–154.Google Scholar
  43. Wahlster, W. and A. Kobsa: 1989, ‘User models in dialog systems’, In: A. Kobsa and W. Wahlster (eds.):User Models in Dialog Systems. Springer Verlag, pp. 4–34.Google Scholar
  44. Wahlster, W.: 1988, ’Distinguishing user models from discourse models’.Computational Linguistics 14, 101–103.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liliana Ardissono
    • 1
  • Dario Sestero
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di InformaticaUniversità di TorinoTorinoItaly

Personalised recommendations