, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 313–333 | Cite as

Road pricing: An international perspective

  • A. D. May


This paper reviews experience with road pricing in Europe and Asia. It considers the objectives of road pricing, and demonstrates that differences in objectives lead to differences in scheme design and performance. It reviews the criteria for design of road pricing systems, and the development of charging structures and technologies to meet those criteria. In particular it discusses the relative merits of pre-determined and congestion-dependent charging structures, and of off-vehicle and on-vehicle charging systems. It assesses the performance of road pricing systems to date, discusses objections to road pricing and demonstrates that the role of road pricing within a wider transport strategy and the use made of the revenue generated, will be important determinants of public acceptability. Finally it assesses the relative merits of alternative approaches to implementation and argues that these will need to pay as much regard to public acceptability as to technical performance.

Key words

charging structures charging technology implementation public acceptability road pricing 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Atkinson D & Lewis D (1975) An econometric model of the influence of petrol price on traffic in Greater London. Proc. Summer Annual Meeting. London, PTRC.Google Scholar
  2. Austroads (1991) Road demand management Sydney, Austroads.Google Scholar
  3. Button KJ (1991) Electronic road pricing: experience and prospects. Proc. Economy and Environment in the 1990s. University of Neuchatel.Google Scholar
  4. Button KJ & Pearman AD (1983) Road pricing: some of the neglected theoretical and policy implications.Transport Planning and Technology 8: 1.Google Scholar
  5. Blythe PT & Hills PJ (1991) The DRIVE project PAMELA: 1. The technology.Traffic Engineering and Control 32: 5.Google Scholar
  6. Catling I & Harbord BJ (1985) Electronic road pricing in Hong Kong: 2. The technology.Traffic Engineering and Control 26: 12.Google Scholar
  7. Chartered Institute for Transport (1990) Paying for progress. London, CIT.Google Scholar
  8. Dawson JAL & Brown FN (1985) Electronic road pricing in Hong Kong: 1. A fair way to go?Traffic Engineering and Control 26: 11.Google Scholar
  9. Department of Energy (1990) Energy use and energy efficiency in UK transport up to the year 2010. Energy Efficiency Paper 10. London, HMSO.Google Scholar
  10. Department of Transport (1989) Traffic in London. London.Google Scholar
  11. Department of Transport (1991) Research programme on road pricing for London. Progress Report No. 1 (unpublished).Google Scholar
  12. EASAMS (1991) Timezone: — an integrated approach to electronic road pricing, parking and toll collection, with applications for public transport management.Google Scholar
  13. Goodwin PB (1988) Evidence on car and public transport demand elasticities. Transport Studies Unit, Oxford University.Google Scholar
  14. Goodwin PB (1989) The rule of three: a possible solution to the political problem of competing objectives for road pricing.Traffic Engineering and Control 30: 10.Google Scholar
  15. Greater London Council (1974). A study of supplementary licensing.Google Scholar
  16. Harrison B et al. (1986) Electronic road pricing in Hong Kong: 3. Estimating and evaluating the effects.Traffic Engineering and Control 27: 1.Google Scholar
  17. Hau TD (1992) An evaluation of current practices in congestion pricing. 71st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington.Google Scholar
  18. Holland EP & Watson PL (1978). Traffic restraint in Singapore: 1. Measuring the effects of the Area Licence Scheme.Traffic Engineering and Control 19: 1.Google Scholar
  19. Jeffery DJ, Russam K & Robertson DI (1987) Electronic route guidance by AUTOGUIDE: the research background.Traffic Engineering and Control 28: 10.Google Scholar
  20. Jones SR (1981) Accessibility measures: a literature review. Laboratory Report 967. Transport and Road Research Laboratory.Google Scholar
  21. Jones P (1991) Gaining public support for road pricing through a package approach.Traffic Engineering and Control 32: 4.Google Scholar
  22. Larsen OI (1988) The toll ring in Bergen, Norway — the first year of operation.Traffic Engineering and Control 29: 4.Google Scholar
  23. London Planning Advisory Committee (1991) Road pricing: the potential for comparative monitoring. London, LPAC.Google Scholar
  24. May, AD (1975a) Parking control — experience and problems in London.Traffic Engineering and Control 16: 5.Google Scholar
  25. May AD (1975b) Supplementary licensing: an evaluation.Traffic Engineering and Control 16: 4.Google Scholar
  26. May AD (1986) Traffic restraint: a review of the alternatives.Transportation Research 20A. 2.Google Scholar
  27. May AD, Guest PW & Gardner K (1990) Can rail-based policies relieve urban traffic congestion?Traffic Engineering and Control 31: 7–8.Google Scholar
  28. May AD & Nash CA (1990) Assessing the benefits and incidence of road pricing in London. Proposal to ESRC, Leeds, Institute for Transport Studies.Google Scholar
  29. May AD (1991) Integrated transport strategies: a new approach to urban transport policy formulation in the UK.Transport Reviews 11: 3.Google Scholar
  30. May AD, Roberts M & Mason P (1992) The development of transport strategies for Edinburgh. Proc. Institution of Civil Engineers.Transportation 95: 51–9.Google Scholar
  31. May AD, van Vliet D & Smith MJ (1991) The network effects of alternative road user charging systems. Proposal to SERC, Leeds, Institute for Transport Studies.Google Scholar
  32. Ministry of Transport (1964) Road pricing — the technical and economic possibilities. London, HMSO.Google Scholar
  33. The MVA Consultancy (1990) Stated preference analysis for Rekening Rijden. Final report to DVK, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  34. The MVA Consultancy (1991) Joint authorities transportation and environmental study: Strategies Study. Executive Summary.Google Scholar
  35. National Economic Development Office (1991) A road user charge? Londoners' views. London, NEDO.Google Scholar
  36. Ogunisanya A (1984) Improving urban traffic flow by restraint of traffic: the case of Lagos.Transportation 12: 2.Google Scholar
  37. Oldridge B (1990) Electronic road pricing: an answer to traffic congestion? Proc. Information Technology and Traffic Management. London, NEDO.Google Scholar
  38. Pearce DW & Markandya A (1989) Environmental policy benefits: monetary valuation. Paris, OECD.Google Scholar
  39. Pearce DW et al. (1989) Blueprint for a green economy. London, Earthscan.Google Scholar
  40. Polak J & Jones P (1991) Assessing traveller responses to road pricing options. Proc. 6th International Conference on Travel Behaviour. Quebec.Google Scholar
  41. Richardson HW (1974) A note on the distribution effects of road pricing.Journal of Transport Economics and Policy 8: 7.Google Scholar
  42. Smith, MJ & Ghali MO (1991) A new dynamic model for evaluating the performance of urban traffic control systems and route guidance strategies. Proc. Transportation Research Board Conference, Washington.Google Scholar
  43. Solheim T (1991) The toll ring in Oslo —presentation of a study programme and some preliminary results. Proc. Seminar on Future Road Transport Systems and Infrastructures in Urban Areas, Chiba, OECD.Google Scholar
  44. Stoelhorst HJ & Zandbergen AJ (1990) The development of a road pricing system in the Netherlands.Traffic Engineering and Control 31: 2.Google Scholar
  45. Thompson A (1990) Road user charging: the current state of technology.Traffic Engineering and Control 31: 10.Google Scholar
  46. Thorpe N & Hills PJ (1991) The DRIVE project PAMELA: 2 the scope of automated pricing systems.Traffic Engineering and Control 32: 7–8.Google Scholar
  47. van Vuren T & Smart MB (1990) Route guidance and road pricing — problems, practicalities and possibilities.Transport Reviews 10: 3.Google Scholar
  48. Vincent RA & Layfield RE (1978). Nottingham zones and collar scheme — the overall assessment. Laboratory Report 805. Transport and Road Research Laboratory.Google Scholar
  49. Vougiaukas M et al. (1991) Evaluating road user response to electronic road pricing scenarios in Athens using stated preference methods. Pro. PTRC Summer Annual Meeting. London, PTRC.Google Scholar
  50. Wilson PW (1988) Welfare effects of congestion pricing in Singapore.Transportation 15: 3.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. D. May
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations