Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Documenting and detecting long-term precipitation trends: Where we are and what should be done

  • 148 Accesses

  • 50 Citations

Abstract

A brief review of problems and achievements in documenting precipitation changes during the period of instrumental measurements is presented. Concern is expressed that without appropriate studies in the coming period of a new generation of precipitation measurements, technological progress in instrumentation may adversely and inadvertently affect our capability for monitoring and detecting future changes in terrestrial precipitation. At the same time, only a new generation of instrumentation will be capable of resolving the problems of monitoring precipitation over oceans.

Special attention is paid to validation of the increasing trend in terrestrial precipitation observed during the past hundred years at high latitudes of the northern hemisphere - a feature of global warming predicted by most climate models.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Adler, R. F. and Mack, R. A.: 1984, ‘Thunderstorm Cloud Height-Rainfall Rate Relations for Use with Satellite Rainfall Estimation Techniques’,J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 280–296.

  2. Alexandersson, H.: 1994,Some Comments on Recent Climate Fluctuations - from a Swedish Horizon. Climate Variations in Europe, Proceedings of the European Workshop on Climate Variations held in Kirkkonummi, Finland, 15-18 May 1994, Publ. of the Academy of Finland, pp. 293-305.

  3. Allerup, P. and Madsen, H.: 1980, ‘Accuracy of Point Precipitation Measurements’,Nord. Hydrol. 11, 57–70.

  4. Arkin, P. A. and Ardanuy, P. E.: 1989, ‘Estimating Climate-Scale Precipitation from Space: A Review’,J. Clim. 2, 1229–1238.

  5. Biswas, A. K.: 1970,History of Hydrology, North-Holland Pub. Co., Amsterdam; American Elsevier Pub. Co., New York, 336 pp.

  6. Bogdanova, E. G.: 1966, ‘Investigation of Precipitation Measurement Losses due to the Wind’,Transact. Main Geophys. Observatory, Leningrad,195, 40–62, (in Russian).

  7. Bodanova, E. G.: 1986, ‘A New Map of Atmospheric Precipitation over the World Ocean’,Izv. AS USSR, Seria Geograph. 1, 37–49, (in Russian).

  8. Borzenkova, I. I.: 1994,Climate Change in the Cenozoic, Presented at the U.S. Russian Workshop on Paleocalibration of Climate Sensitivity, Washington, DC, Aug. 15-17, 1994, 338 pp.

  9. Bradley, R. S., Diaz, H. F., Eischeid, J. K., Jones, P. D., Kelly, P. M., and Goodess, C. M.: 1987, ‘Precipitation Fluctuations over Northern Hemisphere Land Areas since the Mid-19th Century’,Science 237, 171–275.

  10. Bradley, R. S. and Groisman, P. Ya.: 1989, ‘Continental Scale Precipitation Variations in the 20th Century’, in Sevruk, B. (ed.),Precipitation Measurement, WMO/IAHS/ETH Workshop on Precipitation Measurement, St. Moritz, 3-7 December 1989, pp. 499–503.

  11. Budyko, M. I. and Drozdov, O. A.: 1976, ‘On the Causes of Changes in Hydrological Cycle’,Water Resources 6, 35–44, (in Russian).

  12. Budyko, M. I. and Izrael, Yu. A. (eds.): 1987,Anthropogenic Climate Changes, Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 406 pp., (in Russian; in English: 1991, Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson, 485 pp.).

  13. Czelnai, R., Desi, F., and Rakoczi, F.: 1963, ‘On Determining the Rational Density of Precipitation Measuring Networks’,Idojaras 67, 257–267.

  14. Dahlström, B.: 1986,The Improvement of Point Precipitation Data on an Operational Basis, Nordic Hydrological Programme. NHP-Report No. 17, 86 pp.

  15. Dahlström, B.: 1994,Short Term Fluctuations of Temperature and Precipitation in Western Europe. Climate Variations in Europe, Proceedings of the European Workshop on Climate Variations held in Kirkkonummi, Finland, 15-18 May 1994, Publ. of the Academy of Finland, pp. 30–38.

  16. Diaz, H. F., Bradley, R. S., and Eischeid, J. K.: 1989, ‘Precipitation Fluctuation over Global Land Areas since the Late 1800s’,J. Geophys. Res. 94, 1195–1240.

  17. Dorman, C. E.: 1982, ‘Comments on “Comparison of Ocean and Island Rainfall in the Tropical Pacific”’,J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 109–113.

  18. Dorman, C. E. and Bourke, R. H.: 1978, ‘A Temperature Correction for Tucker's Ocean Rainfall Estimates’,Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 104, 765–773.

  19. Dorman, C. E. and Bourke, R. H.: 1979, ‘Precipitation over the Pacific Ocean, 30° S to 60° N,Mon. Wea. Rev. 107, 896–910.

  20. Dorman, C. E. and Bourke, R. H.: 1981, ‘Precipitation over the Atlantic Ocean, 30° S to 70° N,Mon. Wea. Rev. 109, 554–563.

  21. Eischeid, J. K., Diaz, H. F., Bradley, R. S., and Jones, P. D.: 1991:A Comprehensive Precipitation Data Set for Global Land Areas, U.S. Department of Energy Monograph TR051, DOE/ER-69017T-H1, Washington, DC, 82 pp.

  22. Elliott, W. P., Egami, R., and Rossknecht, G.: 1971, ‘Rainfall at Sea’,Nature 229, 108–109.

  23. Elliott, W. P. and Reed, R. K.: 1973, ‘Oceanic Rainfall off the Pacific Northwest Coast’,J. Geophys. Res. 78, 941–948.

  24. Folland, C. K.: 1988, ‘Numerical Models of the Raingauge Exposure Problem, Field Experiments and an Improved Collector Design’,Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 114, 1485–1516.

  25. Folland, C. K. and Wales-Smith, B. G.: 1977, ‘Richard Towneley and 300 Years of Regular Rainfall Measurement’,Weather 32, 438–445.

  26. Frich, P., Brodsgaard, B., and Cappelen, J.: 1991,North Atlantic Climatological Data Set (NACD), Present Status and Future Plans, DMI Technical Report 91-8.

  27. Frich, P.: 1994,Precipitation Trends in the North Atlantic European Region. Climate Variations in Europe, Proceedings of the European Workshop on Climate Variations held in Kirkkonummi, Finland, 15-18 May 1994, Publ. of the Academy of Finland, pp. 196–200.

  28. Gandin, L. S.: 1993, ‘Optimal Averaging of Meteorological Fields’, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA National Weather Service, National Meteorological Center, Office Note 397, 56 pp.

  29. Gandin, L. S., Celnai, R., and Zakhariev, V. E. (eds.): 1976,Statistical Structure of Meteorological Fields, Az Orszagos Meteorologiai Szolgalat, Budapest, 364 pp., (in Russian and Hungarian, resumes in German).

  30. Georgievsky, V. Yu, Zhuravin, S. A., and Ezhov, A. V.: 1995,Assessment of Trends in Hydrometeorological Situation on the Great Russian Plain under the Effect of Climate Variations, AGU Proc., Fifteen Annual Hydrology Days, April 3-7, 1995, Fort Collins, Colorado, U.S.A., pp. 47-58.

  31. Golitsyn, G. S., Dzuba, A. V., Osipov, A. G., and Panin, G. N.: 1990, ‘Regional Climate Changes and Their Impacts on the Caspian Sea Level Rise’,Doklady USSR Acad. Sci. 313 (5, 1224–1227, (in Russian).

  32. Golubev, V. S.: 1965, ‘Some Results of the Studies at the Precipitation Experimental Site at Valdai, Russia’,Transact. State Hydrolog. Instit. 123, 81–95.

  33. Golubev, V. S.: 1969, ‘Research on Precipitation Measurement Accuracy’,Transact. State Hydrolog. Instit. 176, 149–164, (in Russian).

  34. Golubev, V. S.: 1975, ‘Results of the Intercomparison of Precipitation Gages’,Transact. State Hydrolog. Instit. 224, 38–46.

  35. Golubev, V. S.: 1993,Experience of Correction of Precipitation Point Measurements and Analysis of Correction Procedures, Proc. 8th Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, American Meteorological Society, Boston, pp. 325–328.

  36. Golubev, V. S., Koknaeva, V. V., Simonenko, A. Yu.: 1995, ‘Results of Atmospheric Precipitation Measurements by National Standard Gauges of Canada, USA, and Russia’,Meteorolog. Gydrolog. 2, 102–110, (in Russian).

  37. Goodison, B. E.: 1981, ‘Compatibility of Canadian Snowfall and Snow Cover Data’,Water Resourc. Res. 17, 893–900.

  38. Goodison, B. E., Golubev, V. S., Gunter, T., and Sevruk, B.: 1992,Preliminary Results of the WMO Solid Precipitation Measurement Intercomparison, Proc. of WMO Technical Conference on Instruments and Methods of Observation, 10-15 May 1992, Vienna, Austria, pp. 81-85.

  39. Groisman, P. Ya.: 1991a, ‘Data on Present-Day Precipitation Changes in the Extratropical Part of the Northern Hemisphere’, p. 297–310 in Schlesinger, M. E. (ed.),Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change: A Critical Appraisal of Simulations and Observations, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 615 pp.

  40. Groisman, P. Ya.: 1991b,Unbiased Estimates of Precipitation Change in the Northern Hemisphere Extratropics, AMS Proc., Fifth Conference on Climate Variations, Denver, CO, pp. 42–45.

  41. Groisman, P. Ya.: 1992,Studying the North American Precipitation Changes During the Last 100 Years, Proc. of the 5th International Meeting on Statistical Climatology, Toronto, 22-26 June 1992, pp. 75–79.

  42. Groisman, P. Ya.: 1993,Towards Unbiased Estimates of North American Precipitation, AMS Proc., Eighth Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, pp. J43-J47.

  43. Groisman, P. Ya. and Easterling, D. R.: 1994, ‘Variability and Trends of Precipitation and Snowfall over the United States and Canada’,J. Clim. 7, 184–205.

  44. Groisman, P. Ya., Koknaeva, V. V., Belokrylova, T. A., and Karl, T. R.: 1991a, ‘Overcoming Biases of Precipitation Measurement: A History of the USSR Experience’,Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1725–1733.

  45. Groisman, P. Ya., Mason, E. M., and DelGreco, S.: 1991b,Metadata for Construction of Homogeneous Long-Term Precipitation Time Series, AMS Proc., Seventh Conference on Applied Climatiology, Sept. 10-13, 1991, Salt Lake City, Utah, pp. 119-122.

  46. Groisman, P. Ya. and Legates, D. R.: 1994, ‘The Accuracy of United States Precipitation Data’,Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 215–227.

  47. Groisman, P. Ya., Quayle, R. G., and Easterling, D. R.: 1994,Reducing Biases in Estimates of Precipitation over the United States, AMS Proc., Sixth Conference on Climate Variations, pp. 165-169.

  48. Groisman, P. Ya., Easterling, D. R., Quayle, R. G., Golubev, V. S., Krenke, A. N., and Mikhailov, A. Yu.: 1995, ‘Reducing Biases in Estimates of Precipitation Over the United States: Phase Three Adjustments’,J. Geophys. Res. (in press).

  49. Hanssen-Bauer, I. and Førland, E. J.: 1994, ‘Homogenizing Long Norwegian Precipitation Series’,J. Clim. 7, 1001–1013.

  50. Heino, R.: 1994,Climate in Finland During the Period of Meteorological Observations, Finnish Meteorological Institute Contributions, No.12, 209 pp.

  51. Hendrick, R. L. and Comer, G. H.: 1970, ‘Space Variations of Precipitation and the Implications for Raingage Network Design’,J. Hydrol. 10, 151–163.

  52. Huff, F. A.: 1979,Spatial and Temporal Correlation of Precipitation in Illinois, Circular 141, Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana, IL, 14 pp.

  53. Huff, F. A. and Shipp, W. L.: 1969, ‘Spatial Correlations of Storms, Monthly and Seasonal Precipitation’,J. Appl. Meteorol. 8 (4, 542–550.

  54. Hulme, M.: 1992, ‘A 1951-80 Global Land Precipitation Climatology for the Evaluation of General Circulation Models’,Clim. Dynam. 7 (2), 57–72.

  55. Hulme, M.: 1994, ‘The Cost of Climate Data - a European Experience’,Weather 49, 168–175.

  56. Hulme, M.: 1995, ‘Estimating Global Changes in Precipitation’,Weather 50, 34–42.

  57. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): 1990,Climate Change. The IPCC Scientific Assessment, Houghton, J. T., Jenkins, G. J., and Ephraums, J. J. (eds.), Cambridge University Press N.Y., 362 pp.

  58. IPCC: 1992,Climate Change 1992. The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment, Houghton, J. T., Callander, B. A., and Varney, S. K. (eds.), Cambridge University Press N.Y., 200 pp.

  59. IPCC: 1995,Climate Change. The IPCC Second Scientific Assesment, (Draft).

  60. Jacobs, W. C.: 1968, ‘The Seasonal Apportionment of Precipitation over the Ocean’, in Court, A. (ed.),Eclectic Climatology, Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, Oregon, 63–78.

  61. Jaeger, L.: 1976, ‘Monatskarten des Niederschlags für die Ganze Erde’,Ber. Deutsch. Wetterdienstes 18, 38 pp.

  62. Janowiak, J. E.: 1992, ‘Tropical Rainfall: A Comparison between Satellite-Derived Rainfall Estimates with Model Precipitation Forecasts, Climatologies, and Observations’,Mon. Wea. Rev. 120, 448–462.

  63. Janowiak, J. E., Arkin, P. A., Xie, P., Morrissey, M. L., and Legates, D. R.: 1995, ‘An Examination of the East Pacific ITCZ Rainfall Distribution’,J. Clim., (forthcoming).

  64. Kagan, R. L.: 1972, ‘Planning the Spatial Distribution of Hydrometeorological Stations to Meet an Error Criterion’, inCasebook on Hydrological Network Design Practice, WMO Publ. 324, Geneva, III-1.2-1-III-1.2-8.

  65. Kagan, R. L.: 1979,Averaging of Meteorological Fields, Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 213 pp., (in Russian).

  66. Karl, T. R., Groisman, P. Ya., Knight, R. W., and Heim, R. R., Jr.: 1993a, ‘Recent Variations of Snow Cover and Snowfall in North America and Their Relation to Precipitation and Temperature Variations’,J. Clim. 6, 1327–1344.

  67. Karl, T. R., Quayle, R. G., and Groisman, P. Ya.: 1993b, ‘Detecting Climate Variations and Change: New Challenges for Observing and Data Management Systems’,J. Clim. 6, 1481–1494.

  68. Karl, T. R., Williams, C. N., Jr., Quinlan, F. T., and Boden, T. A.: 1990,United States Historical Climatology Network (HCN) Serial Temperature and Precipitation Data, NDP-019/R1, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 83 pp. (plus appendices).

  69. Kay, P. A. and Kutiel, H.: 1994, ‘Some Remarks on Climatic Maps of Precipitation’,Clim. Res. 4, 233–241.

  70. Khrgian, A. H.: 1948,Essays on the Development of the Meteorological Science, Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 352 pp., (in Russian).

  71. Kurtyka, J. C.: 1953,Precipitation Measurements Study, Investigation No. 20, Department of Registration and Education and the State Water Survey Division, Urbana, Illinois, 163 pp.

  72. Larson, L. W.: 1971,Precipitation and Its Measurement, a State of the Art, Water Resources Series24, Water Resources Research Institute, Wyoming University, Laramie, Wyoming, 74 pp.

  73. Larson, L. W. and Peck, E. L.: 1974, ‘Accuracy of Precipitation Measurements for Hydrologic Modeling’,Water Resourc. Res. 10, 857–863.

  74. Lavery, B. M., Kariko, A. P., and Nicholls, N.: 1992, ‘A High-Quality Historical Rainfall Data Set for Australia’,Aust. Meteorol. Mag. 40, 33–39.

  75. Legates, D. R.: 1987, ‘A Climatology of Global Precipitation’,Publ. Climatol. 40(1), 84 pp.

  76. Legates, D. R.: 1992,The Need for Removing Biases from Rain and Snowgage Measurements, Proc. Snow Watch '92, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canadian Climate Centre, World Meteorological Organization, and Institute for Space and Terrestrial Science, pp. 144-151.

  77. Legates, D. R.: 1995a, ‘Global and Terrestrial Precipitation: A Comparative Assessment of Existing Climatologies’,Int. J. Climatol. 15, 237–258.

  78. Legates, D. R.: 1995b,Precipitation Measurement Biases and Climate Change Detection, AMS. Proc., Sixth Symposium on Global Change Studies, Dallas, TX, pp. 168–173.

  79. Legates, D. R. and Willmott, C. J.: 1990, ‘Mean Seasonal and Spatial Variability in Gage-Corrected, Global Precipitation’,Int. J. Climatol. 10, 111–127.

  80. Lettenmaier, D. P., Wood, E. F., and Wallis, J. R.: 1994, ‘Hydro-Climatological Trends in the Continental United States, 1948-88’,J. Clim. 7, 586–607.

  81. Manabe, S., Stouffer, R. J., Spellman, M. J., and Brian, K.: 1991, ‘Transient Responses of a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model to Gradual Changes of Atmospheric CO2. Part 1: Annual Mean Response’,J. Clim. 4, 785–818.

  82. Manabe, S., Spellman, M. J., and Stouffer, R. J.: 1992, ‘Transient Responses of a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model to Gradual Changes of Atmospheric CO2. Part 2: Seasonal Response’,J. Clim. 5, 105–126.

  83. Metcalfe, J. R. and Goodison, B. E.: 1992,Automation of Winter Precipitation Measurements: The Canadian Experience, Proceedings of the WMO Technical Conference on Instruments and Methods of Observation, 11-15 May 1992, Vienna, Austria, WMO/TD, No. 462, pp. 81-85.

  84. Mitchell, J. F. B., Manabe, S., Meleshko, V. P., and Tokioka, T.: 1990, ‘Equilibrium Climate Change- and Its Implications for the Future’, Ch. 5 inClimate Change, The IPCC Scientific Assessment, Publ. WMO/UNEP, pp. 131-174.

  85. Murphy, J. M. and Mitchell, J. F. B.: 1995, ‘Transient Response of the Hadley Centre Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model to Increasing Carbon Dioxide. Part II: Spatial and Temporal Structure of Response’,J. Clim. 8, 57–80.

  86. Nicholson, S. E.: 1995, ‘Variability of African Rainfall on Interannual and Decadal Time Scales’, inNatural and Climate Variability on Decade-to-Century Time Scales, National Academy Press, (in press).

  87. Nørdø, J. and Hjortnaes, K.: 1967, ‘Statistical Studies of Precipitation on Local, National and Continental Scales’,Geofisiske Publikasjoner 26 (12, 46 pp.

  88. Parthasarathy, B., Rupa Kumar, K., and Kothawale, D. R.: 1992, ‘Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall Indices: 1871-1990’,Meteorol. Magazin 121, 174–186.

  89. Parthsarathy, B., Minot, A. A., and Kothawale, D. R.: 1994, ‘All-India Monthly and Seasonal Rainfall Series: 1871-1993’,Theor. Appl. Climatol. 49, 217–224.

  90. Peck, E. L. and Schaake, J. C.: 1990, ‘Network Design for Water Supply Forecasting in the West’,Water Resourc. Bull. 26 (1, 87–99.

  91. Quayle, R. G.: 1974, ‘A Climatic Comparison of Ocean Weather Stations and Transient Ship Records’,Marine Wea. Log. 18, 307–311.

  92. Rao, M. S. V. and Theon, J. S.: 1977, ‘New Features of Global Climatology Revealed by Satellite-Derived Oceanic Rainfall Maps’,Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 58, 1285–1288.

  93. Reed, R. K.: 1979, ‘On the Relationship between the Amount and Frequency of Precipitation over the Ocean’,J. Appl. Meteorol. 18, 692–696.

  94. Reed, R. K.: 1980, ‘Comparison of Ocean and Island Rainfall in the Tropical North Pacific’,J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 877–880.

  95. Reed, R. K. and Elliott, W. P.: 1973, ‘Precipitation at Ocean Weather Stations in the North Pacific’,J. Geoph. Res. 78, 7087–7091.

  96. Reed, R. K. and Elliott, W. P.: 1977, ‘A Comparison of Oceanic Precipitation as Measured by Gage and Assessed from Weather Reports’,J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 983–986.

  97. Reed, R. K. and Elliott, W. P.: 1979, ‘New Precipitation Maps for the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans’,J. Geophys. Res. 84, 7839–7846.

  98. Rodda, J. C.: 1971,The Precipitation Measurement Paradox - the Instrument Accuracy Problem, World Meteorol. Organ., WMO/IHD Report No. 16, WMO #316, Geneva, 42 pp.

  99. Rudolf, B., Hauschild, H., Reiss, M., Schneider, U., and Henning, D.: 1992, ‘Contributions to the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre’,Meteorolog. Zeitschrift, Neue Folge, Heft1, 7–84, (in German, +English summaries).

  100. Rudolf, B., Hauschild, H., Ruth, W., and Schneider, U.: 1994,Management and Analysis of Precipitation Data on a Routine Basis, Proc., Intl. Symp. on Prec. and Evap., Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Bratislava, pp. 69–76.

  101. Schutz, C. and Gates, W. L.: 1971,Global Climatic Data for Surface, 800 mb, 400 mb: January, July, April, October, Rand, Santa Monica, R-915-ARPA, 173 pp.

  102. Sevruk, B.: 1982, ‘Methods of Correction for Systematic Error in Point Precipitation Measurement for Operational Use’,Oper. Hydrol. Rep. 21, Publ. 589, World Meteorol. Organ., Geneva, Switzerland, 91 pp.

  103. Sevruk, B.: 1988, ‘Towards the Universal Precipitation Gauge of the Future’,Vaisala News 113-114, 12–14.

  104. Sevruk, B. (ed.): 1992, ‘Snow Cover Measurements and Areal Assessment of Precipitation and Soil Moisture’,Oper. Hydrol. Rep. 35, Publ. No. 749, World Meteorol. Organ., Geneva, Switzerland, 283 pp.

  105. Sevruk, B. and Hamon, W. R.: 1984,International Comparison of National Precipitation Gauges with a Reference Pit Gauge, Instruments and Observing Methods Report No. 17, WMO/TD-No. 38, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 86 pp.

  106. Sevruk, B., Kirchhofer, D., Tihlarik, R., and Zahlavova, L.: 1993, ‘Precipitation Corrections in Switzerland’, in Sevruk, B. and Lapin, M. (eds.),Precipitation Measurements and Quality Control, Proc. of Symposium on Precipitation and Evaporation, Vol.1, Zurich, pp. 155-156.

  107. Sevruk, B. and Klemm, S.: 1989,Catalogue of National Standard Precipitation Gauges, WMO, Report No.313, 50 pp.

  108. Shver, Ts. A.: 1976,Precipitation over the USSR Territory, Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 302 pp., (in Russian).

  109. Shver, Ts. A.: 1984,Regularities in Distribution of Precipitation Amount over Continents, Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 285 pp., (in Russian).

  110. Simpson, J., Adler, R. F., and North, G. R.: 1988, ‘A Proposed Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite’,Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 69, 279–295.

  111. Spangler, W. M. L. and Jenne, R. L.: 1990,World Monthly Surface Station Climatology, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Scientific Computing Division, Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A., 14 pp.

  112. Spencer, R. W.: 1993, ‘Global Oceanic Precipitation from the MSU During 1979-91 and Comparisons to Other Climatologies’,J. Clim. 6, 1301–1326.

  113. Spreafico, M., Weigartner, R., and Leibundgut, Ch. (eds.): 1992,Hydrological Atlas of Switzerland, Landestopographie, Bern.

  114. Tabony, R. C.: 1980,A Set of Homogeneous European Rainfall Series, U.K. Meteorological Office, 18th Branch Memorandum 104, Bracknell, U.K., 244 pp.

  115. Tabony, R. C.: 1981, ‘A Principal Component and Spectral Analysis of European Rainfall’,J. Climatol. 1, 283–294.

  116. Tucker, G. G.: 1961, ‘Precipitation over the North Atlantic Ocean’,Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 87, 147–158.

  117. U.S. Department of Commerce: 1968,Climatic Atlas of the United States, Environmental Science Service Administration, Environment Data Service, 80 pp.

  118. Vinnikov, K. Ya., Groisman, P. Ya., and Lugina, K. M.: 1990, ‘Empirical Data on Contemporary Global Climate Changes (Temperature and Precipitation)’,J. Clim. 3, 662–677.

  119. Vose, R. S., Schmoyer, R. L., Steurer, P. M., Peterson, T. C., Heim, R. R., Jr., Karl, T. R., and Eischeid, J. K.: 1992,The Global Historical Climatology Network: Long-Term Monthly Temperature, Precipitation, Sea Level Pressure, and Station Pressure Data, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 3912, 99 pp., (with Appendices).

  120. Wilheit, T. T., Chang, A. T. C., and Chiu, L. S.: 1991, ‘Retrieval of Monthly Rainfall Indices from Microwave Radiometric Measurements Using Probability Distribution Functions’,J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 8, 118–137.

  121. Willmott, C. J. and Legates, D. R.: 1991, ‘Rising Estimates of Terrestrial and Global Precipitation’,Clim. Res. 1, 179–186.

  122. Willmott, C. J., Robeson, S. M., and Feddema, J. J.: 1994, ‘Estimating Continental and Terrestrial Precipitation Averages from Rain-Gauge Networks’,Int. J. Climatol. 14, 403–414.

  123. World Meteorological Organization (WMO): 1973,Annotated Bibliography on Precipitation Measurement Instruments, WMO-No. 343, Geneva, Switzerland, 278 pp.

  124. WMO: 1979,Climatic Atlas of North and Central America, Vol.1, WMO, UNESCO, Geneva, Switzerland, 39 pp.

  125. WMO: 1991,Final Report of the Fifth Session of International Organizing Committee for the WMO Solid Precipitation Measurement Intercomparison, World Meteorol. Organ., Geneva, Switzerland, 19 pp.

  126. World Water Balance and Water Resources of the Earth (WWB): 1974-1978, Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, (1974 in Russian; 1978 in English).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Groisman, P.Y., Legates, D.R. Documenting and detecting long-term precipitation trends: Where we are and what should be done. Climatic Change 31, 601–622 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01095163

Download citation

Keywords

  • Precipitation
  • Northern Hemisphere
  • Global Warming
  • High Latitude
  • Technological Progress