Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Monitoring sea level changes

Abstract

Future sea level rise arouses concern because of potentially deleterious impacts to coastal regions. These will stem not only from the loss of land through inundation and erosion, but also from increased frequency of storm floods, with a rising base level, even with no change in storm climatology, and from saltwater intrusion and greater amounts of waterlogging. Current sea level trends are important in formulating an accurate baseline for future projections. Sea level, furthermore, is an important parameter which integrates a number of oceanic and atmospheric processes. The ocean surface demonstrates considerable variability on diurnal, seasonal, and interannual time scales, induced by winds, storm waves, coastal upwelling, and geostrophic currents. Secular trends in sea level arise from changes in global mean temperature and also from crustal deformation on local to regional scales. The challenge facing researchers is how best to extract the climate signal from this noise.

This paper re-examines recent estimates of sea level rise, discusses causes of variability in the sea level records, and describes methods employed to filter out some of these contaminating signals. Evidence for trends in long-term sea level records and in extreme events is investigated. Application of satellite geodesy to sea level research is briefly reviewed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Allen, J. R. L. and Rae, J. E.: 1988, ‘Vertical Salt-Marsh Accretion since the Roman Period in the Severn Estuary, Southwest Britain’,Mar. Geol. 83, 225–235.

  2. Bacon, S. and Carter, D. J. T.: 1993, ‘A Connection between Mean Wave Height and Atmospheric Pressure Gradient in the North Atlantic’,Intl. J. Clim. 13, 423–436.

  3. Baker, T. F.: 1993, ‘Absolute Sea Level Measurements, Climate Change and Vertical Crustal Movements’,Glob. Planet. Change 8, 149–159.

  4. Barnett, T. P.: 1983, ‘Recent Changes in Sea Level and Their Possible Causes’,Clim. Change 5, 15–38.

  5. Barnett, T. P.: 1984, ‘The Estimates of “Global” Sea Level Change: A Problem of Uniqueness’,J. Geophys. Res. 89, 7980–7988.

  6. Barnett, T. P.: 1988, ‘Global Sea Level’, inNCPO, Climate Variations over the Past Century and the Greenhouse Effect, A report based on the First Climate Trends Workshop, 7-9 Sept., 1988, Washington, D.D., Nat'l Clim. Program Office/NOAA, Rockville, MD.

  7. Beaumariage, D. C. and Scherer, W. D.: 1987, ‘New Technology Enhances Water Level Measurement’,Sea Technol. May, 1987.

  8. Beltrami, H. and Mareschal, J. C.: 1991, ‘Recent Warming in Eastern Canada Inferred from Geothermal Measurements’,Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 605–608.

  9. Bentley, C. R.: 1993, ‘Antarctic Mass Balance and Sea Level Change’,EOS 74, 585–586.

  10. Bentley, C. R. and Giovinetto, M. B.: 1991, ‘Mass Balance of Antarctica and Sea Level Change’, in Weller, G., Wilson, C. L., and Severin, B. A. B. (eds.),Int'l Conf. on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change: Proc. Conf. June 11–15, 1990, U. Alaska, Fairbanks, Geophysical Institute, U. Alaska, pp. 481–488.

  11. Bilham, R.: 1991, ‘Earthquakes and Sea Level: Space and Terrestrial Metrology on a Changing Planet’,Rev. Geophys. 29, 1–29.

  12. Bird, E. C. F.: 1985,Coastline Changes, A Global Review J. Wiley and Sons, 219 pp.

  13. Braithwaite, R. J.: 1993, ‘Interpretation of Short-Term Ice-Sheet Elevation Changes Inferred from Satellite Altimetry’,Clim. Change 23, 383–405.

  14. Camuffo, D.: 1993, ‘Analysis of the Sea Surges at Venice from A.D. 782 to 1990’,Theor. Appl. Climatol. 47, 1–14.

  15. Chao, B. F.: 1994, ‘Man-Made Lakes and Sea-Level Rise’,Nature 370, 258.

  16. Chen, Z., Warne, A. G., and Stanley, D. J.: 1992, ‘Late Quaternary Evolution of the Northwestern Nile Delta between the Rosetta Promentory and Alexandria, Egypt’,J. Coast. Res. 8, 527–561.

  17. Chi, S. C. and Reilinger, R. E.: 1984, ‘Geodetic Evidence for Subsidence due to Groundwater Withdrawal in Many Parts of the USA’,J. Hydrol. 67, 155–182.

  18. Church, J. A., Godfrey, J. S., Jackett, D. R., and MacDougall, T. J.: 1991, ‘A Model of Sea Level Rise Caused by Ocean Thermal Expansion’,J. Clim. 4, 438–456.

  19. Clarke, R. A.: 1993, ‘The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE)’,W.M.O. Bull. 42, 28–33.

  20. Colhoun, E. A., Mabin, M. C. G., Adamson, D. A., and Kirk, R. M.: 1992, ‘Antarctic Ice Volume and Contribution to Sea-Level Fall at 20,000 yr BP from Raised Beaches’,Nature 358, 316–319.

  21. Diamante, J. M., Pyle, T. E., Carter, W. E., and Scherer, W.: 1987, ‘Global Change and the Measurement of Absolute Sea Level’,Prog. Oceanog. 18, 1–21.

  22. Diaz, H. F. and Pulwarty, R.: 1993, ‘A Comparison of Southern Oscillation and El Niño Signals in the Tropics’, in Diaz, H. F. and Markgraf, V. (eds.),El Niño: Historical and Paleoclimatic Aspects of the Southern Oscillation, Cambridge University Press, pp. 175-192.

  23. Dickson, R. R., Meincke, J., and Lee, A. J.: 1988, ‘The “Great Salinity Anomaly” in the northern Atlantic, 1968–82’,Prog. Oceanogr. 20, 103–151.

  24. Dixon, M. J. and Tawn, J. A.: 1992, ‘Trends in UK Extreme Sea-Levels: A Spatial Approach’,Geophys. J. Int. 111, 607–616.

  25. Doake, C. S. M. and Vaughan, D. G.: 1991, ‘Rapid Disintegration of the Wordie Ice Shelf in Response to Atmospheric Warming’,Nature 350, 328–330.

  26. Dolan, R. and Goodell, H. G.: 1986, ‘Sinking Cities’,Am. Sci. 74, 38–47.

  27. Dolan, R., Lins, H., and Hayden, B.: 1988, ‘Mid-Atlantic Coastal Storms’,J. Coast. Res. 4, 417–433.

  28. Douglas, B.: 1991, ‘Global Sea Level Rise’,J. Geophys. Res. 96, 6981–6992.

  29. Douglas, B.: 1992, ‘Global Sea Level Acceleration’,J. Geophys. Res. 97, 12, 699–12, 706.

  30. Douglas, B. C., Cheney, R. E., Miller, L., Agreen, R. W., Carter, W. E., and Robertson, D. S.: 1990, ‘Greenland Ice Sheet: Is It Growing or Shrinking?’,Science 248, 288–289.

  31. Downs, L. L., Nicholls, R., Leatherman, S. P., and Hautzenroder, J.: 1994, ‘Historic Evolution of a Marsh Island: Bloodsworth Island, Maryland’,J. Coast Res. 10, 1031–1044.

  32. Ebersole, B. A.: 1984,Atlantic Coast Water-Level Climate, WIS Report 7, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS.

  33. Ekman, M.: 1988, ‘The World's Longest Continued Series of Sea level Observations’,Pageoph. 127, 73–77.

  34. Emery, K. O.: 1980, ‘Relative Sea Levels from Tide-Gauge Records’,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, D.C. 77, 6968–6972.

  35. Emery, K. O. and Aubrey, D. G.: 1991,Sea Levels, Land Levels, and Tide Gauges, Springer-Verlag Inc., New York, 237 pp.

  36. Fairbanks, R.: 1989, ‘A 17,000-Year Glacio-Eustatic Sea-Level Record: Influence of Glacial Melting Rates on the Younger Dryas Event and Deep Ocean Circulation’,Nature 342, 637–642.

  37. Fairbridge, R. W. and Krebs, O. A.: 1962, ‘Sea Level and the Southern Oscillation’,Geophys. J. 6, 532–545.

  38. Fenster, M. and Dolan, R.: 1994, ‘Large-Scale Reversals in Shoreline Trends along the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Coast’,Geology 22, 543–546.

  39. Flemming, N. C. and Woodworth, P. L.: 1988, ‘Monthly Mean Sea-Levels in Greece 1969–1983 Compared to Relative Vertical Land Movements Measured over Different Timescales’,Tectonophysics 148, 59–72.

  40. Folland, C. K., Karl, T., and Vinnikov, K. Ya.: 1990, ‘Observed Climate Variations and Change’, in Houghton, J. T., Jenkins, G. J., and Ephraums, J. J. (eds.),Climate Change: the IPCC Scientific Assessment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 195–238.

  41. Froomer, N. L.: 1980, ‘Sea Level Changes in the Chesapeake Bay During Historic Times’,Mar. Geol. 36, 289–305.

  42. Fu, L. L., Christensen, E. J., Yamarone, C. A., Jr., Lefebvre, M., Menard, Y., Dorrer, M., and Escudier, P.: 1994, ‘TOPEX/POSEIDON Mission Overview’,J. Geophys. Res. 99, 24,369–24,381.

  43. Führböter, A., Dette, H. H., and Töppe, A.: 1990, ‘Recent Changes in Sea Level’,J. Coast. Res. Spec. Issue No. 9, 146–159.

  44. Gleick, P. H.: 1992, ‘Environmental Consequences of Hydroelectric Development: The Role of Facility Type and Size’,Energy 17, 735–747.

  45. Gornitz, V.: 1995a, ‘A Comparison of Differences between Recent and Late Holocene Sea Level Trends from Eastern North America and Other Selected Regions’,J. Coastal Res. Spec. Issue, (in press).

  46. Gornitz, V.: 1995b, ‘Sea Level Rise: A Review of Recent Past and Near-Future Trends’,Earth Surface Proces. and Landforms 20, 7–20.

  47. Gornitz, V. and Lebedeff, S.: 1987, ‘Global Sea Level Changes During the Past Century’, in Nummedal, D., Pilkey, O. H., and Howard, J. D. (eds.),Sea Level Fluctuation and Coastal Evolution, SEPM Spec. Publ.41, 3-16.

  48. Gornitz, V., Lebedeff, S., and Hansen, J.: 1982, ‘Global Sea Level Trend in the Past Century’,Science 215, 1611–1614.

  49. Gornitz, V., Rosenzweig, C., and Hillel, D.: 1994, ‘Is Sea Level Rising or Falling?’,Nature 371, 481.

  50. Gornitz, V. and Seeber, L.: 1990, ‘Vertical Crustal Movements along the East Coast, North America, from Historic and Late Holocene Sea Level Data’,Tectonophys. 178, 127–150.

  51. Gornitz, V. and Solow, A.: 1991, ‘Observations of Long-Term Tide-Gauge Records for Indicators of Accelerated Sea Level Rise’, in Schlesinger, M. E. (ed.),Greenhouse Gas-Induced Climatic Change: A Critical Appraisal of Simulations and Observations, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 347–367.

  52. Grabherr, G., Gottfried, M., and Pauli, H.: 1994, ‘Climate Effects on Mountain Plants’,Nature 369, 448.

  53. Gregory, J. M.: 1993, ‘Sea-Level Changes under Increasing Atmospheric CO2 in a Transient Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere GCM Experiment’,J. Clim. 6, 2247–2262.

  54. Gröger, M. and Plag, H.-P.: 1993, ‘Estimations of a Global Sea Level Trend: Limitations from the Structure of the PSMSL Global Sea Level Data Set’,Glob. and Planet. Change 8, 161–179.

  55. Grove, J. M.: 1988,The Little Ice Age, Methuen, London, 498 pp.

  56. Gutenberg, B.: 1941, ‘Changes in Sea Level, Post-glacial Uplift and Mobility of the Earth's Interior’,Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 52, 721–722.

  57. Hansen, J., Lacis, A., Rind, D., Russell, G., Stone, P., Fung, I., Ruedy, R., and Lerner, J.: 1984, ‘Climate Sensitivity: Analysis of Feedback Mechanisms’, in Hansen, J. E. and Takahashi, T. (eds.),Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity, Monogr. Ser., Vol. 29, Am. Geophys. Union, Washington, D.C., pp. 130–163.

  58. Hansen, J. and Lebedeff, S.: 1988, ‘Global Surface Air Temperatures: Update through 1987’,Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 323–326.

  59. Hayden, B. P.: 1981, ‘Secular Variations in Atlantic Coast Extratropical Cyclones’,Mon. Wea. Rev. 109, 159–167.

  60. Henderson-Sellers, A., Dickinson, R. E., Durbridge, T. B., Kennedy, P. J., McGuffie, K., and Pitman, A. J.: 1993, ‘Tropical Deforestation: Modeling Local- to Regional-Scale Climate Change’,J. Geophys. Res. 98, 7289–7315.

  61. Hofstede, J. L. A.: 1991, ‘Sea Level Rise in the Inner German Bight (Germany) since AD 600 and Its Implications upon Tidal Flats Geomorphology’, in Bruckner, H. and Radtke, U. (eds.),Von der Nordsee bis zum Indischen Ozean, Franz Steiner, Stuttgart, pp. 11–27.

  62. Hoozemans, F. M. J. and Wiersma, J.: 1992, ‘Is Mean Wave Height in the North Sea Increasing’,Hydrogr. J. 63, 13–15.

  63. Horner, R. W.: 1972, ‘Current Proposals for the Thames Barrier and the Organization of the Investigations’,Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A 272, 179–185.

  64. IPCC: 1992,Climate Change 1992, Houghton, J. T., Callander, B. A., and Varney, S. K. (eds.),Climate Change 1992: The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  65. Jacoby, G., Jr. and D'Arrigo, R.: 1989, ‘Reconstructed Northern Hemisphere Annual Temperature since 1671 Based on High Latitude Tree-Ring Data from North America’,Clim. Change 15, 39–59.

  66. Jacobs, G. A., Hurlburt, H. E., Kindle, J. C., Metzger, E. J., Mitchell, J. L., Teague, W. J., and Wallcraft, A. J.: 1994, ‘Decade-Scale trans-Pacific Propagation and Warming Effects of an El Niño Anomaly’,Nature 370, 360–363.

  67. Jacobs, S. S.: 1992, ‘Is the Antarctic Ice Sheet Growing?’,Nature 360, 29–33.

  68. Kelsey, H. M., Engbretson, D. C., Mitchell, C. E., and Ticknor, R. L.: 1994, ‘Topographic Form of the Coast Ranges of the Cascadia Margin in Relation to Coastal Uplift Rates and Plate Subduction’,J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12, 245–12, 255.

  69. Kearney, M. S. and Stevenson, J. C.: 1991, ‘Island Land Loss and Marsh Vertical Accretion Rate Evidence for Historical Sea-Level Change in Chesapeake Bay’,J. Coastal Res. 7, 403–415.

  70. Kearney, M. S., Stevenson, J. C., and Ward, L. G.: 1994, ‘Spatial and Temporal Changes in Marsh Vertical Accretion Rates at Monie Bay: Implications for Sea-Level Rise’,J. Coast. Res. 10, 1010–1020.

  71. Kerr, R. A.: 1994, ‘How High was Ice Age Ice? A Rebouding Earth May Tell’,Science 265, 189.

  72. Klige, R. K.: 1982, ‘Oceanic Level Fluctuations in the History of the Earth’, inSea and Oceanic Level Fluctuations for 15,000 Years, Acad. Sc. U.S.S.R., Institute of Geography, Moscow, Nauka, pp. 11–22, (in Russian).

  73. Komar, P. D. and Enfield, D. B.: 1987, ‘Short-Term Sea Level Changes and Shore-Line Erosion’, in Nummedal, D.et al. (eds.),Sea Level Fluctuation and Coastal Evolution, SEPM Spec. Publ. 41, pp. 17-27.

  74. Lachenbruch, A. and Marshall, B. V.: 1986, ‘Changing Climate: Geothermal Evidence from Permafrost in the Alaskan Arctic’,Science 234, 689–696.

  75. Lambeck, K.: 1990, ‘Late Pleistocene, Holocene and Present Sea-Levels: Constraints on Future Change’,Paleogeog. Paleoclim. Paleoecol. 89, 205–217.

  76. Lewis, T. (ed.): 1992, ‘Climatic Change Inferred from Underground Temperatures’,Global and Planet. Change Spec. Issue 6, 71-281.

  77. Lisitzin, E.: 1974,Sea Level Changes, Elsevier, New York.

  78. Matthews, R. K.: 1990, ‘Quaternary Sea-Level Change’, inSea-Level Change, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 88–103.

  79. Maul, G. A. and Hanson, K.: 1991, ‘Interannual Coherence between North Atlantic Atmospheric Surface Pressure and Composite Southern U.S.A. Sea Level’,Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 653–656.

  80. Maul, G. A. and Martin, D. M.: 1993, ‘Sea Level Rise at Key West, Florida, 1846-1992: America's Longest Instrument REcord?’,Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1955–1958.

  81. Meade, R. H. and Emery, K. O.: 1971, ‘Sea Level as Affected by River Runoff, Eastern United States’,Science 173, 425–427.

  82. Meier, M. F.: 1984, ‘The Contribution of Small Glaciers to Global Sea Level Rise’,Science 226, 1418–1421.

  83. Meier, M. F.: 1990, ‘Reduced Rise in Sea Level’,Nature 343, 115–116.

  84. Miller, L., Cheney, R., and Lillibridge, J.: 1993, ‘Blending ERS-1 Altimetry and Tide-Gauge Data’,EOS 74, 185, 197.

  85. Milliman, J. D., Broadus, J. M., and Gable, F.: 1989, ‘Environmental and Economic Implications of Rising Sea Level and Subsiding Deltas: The Nile and Bengal Examples’,Ambio 18, 340–345.

  86. Mitchell, C. E., Vincent, P., Weldon, R. J. II, and Richards, M. A.: 1994, ‘Present-Day Deformation of the Cascadia Margin, Pacific Northwest, U.S.A.’,J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12, 257–12, 277.

  87. Morgan, V. I., Goodwin, I. D., Etheridge, D. M., and Wookey, C. W.: 1991, ‘Evidence from Antarctic Ice cores for Recent Increases in Snow Accumulation’,Nature 354, 58–60.

  88. Mörner, N. A.: 1973, ‘Eustatic Changes During the Last 300 Years’,Paleogeog. Paleoclim. Paleoecol. 13, 1–14.

  89. Moses, T., Kiladis, G. N., Diaz, H. F., and Barry, R. G.: 1987, ‘Characteristics and Frequency of Reversals in Mean Sea Level Pressure in the North Atlantic Sector and Their Relationship to Long-Term Temperature Trends’,J. Clim. 7, 13–30.

  90. Mysak, L. A. and Manak, D. K.: 1989, ‘Arctic Sea-Icea Extent and Anomalies, 1953–1984’,Atmos.-Ocean 27, 376–405.

  91. Mysak, L. A., Manak, D. K., and Marsden, R. F.: 1990, ‘Sea-Ice Anomalies Observed in the Greenland and Labrador Seas During 1901–1984 and Their Relation to an Interdecadal Arctic Climate Cycle’,Clim. Dynam. 5, 111–133.

  92. Nakiboglu, S. M. and Lambeck, K.: 1991, ‘Secular Sea Level Change’, in Sabadini, R., Lambeck, K., and Boschi, E. (eds.),Glacial Isostasy, Sea Level and Mantle Rheology, Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht, pp. 237–258.

  93. Nerem, R. S., Schrama, E. J., Koblinsky, C. J., and Beckley, B. D.: 1994, ‘A Preliminary Evaluation of Ocean Topography from the TOPEX/POSEIDON Mission’,J. Geophys. Res. 99, 24, 565–24, 583.

  94. Oerlemans, J.: 1994, ‘Quantifying Global Warming from the Retreat of Glaciers’,Science 264, 243–245.

  95. Oerlemans, J. and Fortuin, J. P. F.: 1992, ‘Sensitivity of Glaciers and Small Ice Caps to Greenhouse Warming’,Science 258, 115–117.

  96. Peltier, W. R.: 1994, ‘Ice Age Paleotopography’,Science 265, 806–810.

  97. Peltier, W. R. and Tushingham, A. M.: 1989, ‘Global Sea Level Rise and the Greenhouse Effect: Might They Be Connected?’,Science 244, 806–810.

  98. Peltier, W. R. and Tushingham, A. M.: 1991, ‘Influence of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment on Tide-Gauge Measurements of Secular Sea Level Change’,J. Geophys. Res. 96, 6779–6796.

  99. Penland, S. and Ramsey, K. E.: 1990, ‘Relative Sea Level Rise in Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico, 1908–1988’,J. Coast. Res. 6, 323–342.

  100. Pirazzoli, P. A.: 1991, ‘Possible Defenses against a Sea-Level Rise in the Venice Area, Italy’,J. Coast. Res. 7, 231–248.

  101. Pirazzoli, P. A.: 1993, ‘Global Sea-Level Changes and Their Measurement’,Glob. and Planet. Change 8, 135–148.

  102. Pugh, D. T.: 1993, ‘Improving Sea Level Data’, in Warrick, R. A., Barrow, E. M., and Wigley, T. M. L. (eds.),Climate and Sea Level Change: Observations, Projections and Implications, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 57–71.

  103. Rodenburg, E.: 1994, ‘Man-Made Lakes and Sea Level Rise’,Nature 370, 258.

  104. Roemmich, D.: 1992, ‘Ocean Warming and Sea Level Rise along the Southwest U.S. Coast’,Science 257, 373–375.

  105. Rohde, H.: 1980, ‘Changes in Sea Level in the German Bight’,Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc. 62, 291–302.

  106. Sahagian, D. L., Schwartz, F. W., and Jacobs, D. K.: 1994, ‘Direct Anthropogenic Contributions to Sea Level Rise in the Twentieth Century’,Nature 367, 54–57.

  107. Schinke, H.: 1992, ‘Zum Auftreten von Zyklonen mit Niedrigen Kerndrucken im Atlantisch-Europäischen Raum von 1930 bis 1991’,Wiss. Zeitschrift der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, R. Math./Naturwiss. 41, 17–28.

  108. Schmidt, H. and von Storch, H.: 1993, ‘German Bight Storms Analyzed’,Nature 365, 791.

  109. Schneider, S.: 1992, ‘Will Sea Levels Rise or Fall?’,Nature 356, 11–12.

  110. Shennan, I. and Woodworth, P. L.: 1992, ‘A Comparison of Late Holocene and Twentieth-Century Sea-Level Trends from the UK and North Sea Region’,Geophys. R. Int. 109, 96–105.

  111. Spencer, N. E. and Woodworth, P. L.: 1993,Data Holdings of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (November 1993), PSMSL, Bidston Observatory, Birkenhead, U.K., 81 pp.

  112. Stapor, F. W., Jr., Mathews, T. D., and Lindfors-Kearns, F. E.: 1991, ‘Barrier-Island Progradation and Holocene Sea-Level History in Southwest Florida’,J. Coast. Res. 7, 815–838.

  113. Tanner, W. F.: 1992, ‘3000 Years of Sea Level Change’,Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 73, 297–303.

  114. Thomas, E., Nydick, K., Scholand, S. J., Varekamp, J. C.: 1993, ‘Accelerated Sea Level Rise over the Last 200 Years?’,Geol. Soc. Am. Abst. with Prog. X, A61-A62.

  115. Thorarinsson, S.: 1940, ‘Present Glacier Shrinkage and Eustatic Changes in Sea Level’,Geogr. Ann. 22, 131–159.

  116. Trupin, A. and Wahr, J.: 1990, ‘Spectroscopic Analysis of Global Tide-Gauge Sea Level Data’,Geophys. J. Intl. 100, 441–453.

  117. Tushingham, A. M. and Peltier, W. R.: 1991, ‘ICE-3G: A New Model of Late Pleistocene Deglaciation Based upon Geophysical Predictions of Post-Glacial Sea Level Change’,J. Geophys. Res. 96, 4497–4523.

  118. Van der Veen, C. J.: 1993, ‘Interpretation of Short-Term Ice-Sheet Elevation Changes Inferred from Satellite Altimetry’,Clim. Change 23, 383–405.

  119. van de Wal, R. S. W. and Oerlemans, J.: 1994, ‘An Energy Balance Model for the Greenland Ice Sheet’,Glob. Plan. Change 9, 115–131.

  120. Varekamp, J. C., Thomas, E., and Van de Plassche, O.: 1992, ‘Relative Sea-Level Rise and Climate Change over the Last 1500 Years’,Terra Nova 4, 293–304.

  121. Wagner, C. A. and Cheney, R. E.: 1992, ‘Global Sea Level Change from Satellite Altimetry’,J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15, 607–15, 615.

  122. Wahr, J. M. and Trupin, A. S.: 1990, ‘New Computation of Global Sea Level Rise from 1990 Tide-Gauge Data’,EOS 71, 1267.

  123. Warrick, R. A. and Oerlemans, J.: 1990, ‘Sea Level Rise’, in Houghton, J. T., Jenkins, G. J., and Ephraums, J. J. (eds.),Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 257–281.

  124. Wigley, T. M. L. and Raper, S. C. B.: 1987, ‘Thermal Expansion of Sea Water Associated with Global Warming’,Nature 330, 127–131.

  125. Wigley, T. M. L. and Raper, S. C. B.: 1992, ‘Implications for Climate and Sea Level of Revised IPCC Emission Scenarios’,Nature 357, 293–300.

  126. Woodworth, P. L.: 1990, ‘A Search for Acceleration in Records of European Mean Sea Level’,Int'l. J. Clim. 10, 129–143.

  127. Woodworth, P. L.: 1991, ‘The Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level and the Global Sea Level Observing System’,J. Coast. Res. 7, 699–710.

  128. Woodworth, P. L. (ed.): 1993,Sea Level Changes: Measurements and Analysis. Sixtienth Anniversary Meeting of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level, 9-10 Dec., 1993, 37 pp.

  129. Wyrtki, K.: 1987, ‘Comparing GEOSAT Altimetry and Sea Level’,EOS 35, 731.

  130. Zwally, H. J.: 1989, ‘Growth of Greenland Ice Sheet: Interpretation’,Science 246, 1589–1591.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Gornitz, V. Monitoring sea level changes. Climatic Change 31, 515–544 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01095160

Download citation

Keywords

  • Crustal Deformation
  • Saltwater Intrusion
  • Coastal Upwelling
  • Interannual Time Scale
  • Geostrophic Current