Advertisement

Climatic Change

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 15–58 | Cite as

National greenhouse gas accounts: Current anthropogenic sources and sinks

  • Susan Subak
  • Paul Raskin
  • David Von Hippel
Article

Abstract

This study provides estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from the major anthropogenic sources for 142 countries. The data compilation is comprehensive in approach, including emissions from CO, CH4, and N2O, and ten halocarbons, in addition to CO2. The sources include emissions from fossil fuel production and use, cement production, halocarbons, landfills, land use changes, biomass burning, rice and livestock production and fertilizer consumption. The approach used to derive these estimates corresponds closely with the simple methodologies proposed by the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Task Force of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The inventory includes a new estimate of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion based principally on data from the International Energy Agency. The research methodologies for estimating emissions from all sources is briefly described and compared with other recent studies in the literature.

Keywords

Biomass Fossil Fuel Research Methodology Anthropogenic Source Intergovernmental Panel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andreae, M. O.: 1991, ‘Biomass Burning: Its History, Use, and Distribution and its Impact on Environmental Quality and Global Climate’, in Levine, J. S. (ed.),Global Biomass Burning, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  2. Barns, D. W. and Edmonds, J. A.: 1990, ‘An Evaluation of the Relationship between the Production and Use of Energy and Atmospheric Methane Emissions’, Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy, DOE/NBB-0088P.Google Scholar
  3. Bingemer, H. G. and Crutzen, P. J.: 1987, ‘The Production of Methane from Solid Wastes’,J. Geophys. Res. 90(D2, 2181–2187.Google Scholar
  4. Blaxter, K. L. and Clapperton, J. L.: 1965, ‘Prediction of the Amount of Methane Produced by Ruminants’,Brit. J. Nutrit. 19, 511–522.Google Scholar
  5. Boston, P. J.: 1990, ‘Direct Coupling of Microbial Activity to Biomass Burn-Enhanced N2O Fluxes in the Field’, Presentation at the Chapman Conference on Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic and Biospheric Implications, March 19–23, 1990, Williamsburg, Virginia.Google Scholar
  6. Bouwman, A. F.: 1990, ‘Exchange of Greenhouse Gases Between Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere’,Soils and the Greenhouse Effect, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, S., and Lugo, A. E.: 1984, ‘Biomass of Tropical Forests’,Science 223, 1290–1293.Google Scholar
  8. Brown, S., Lugo, A. E., and Chapman, J.: 1986, ‘Biomass of Tropical Tree Plantations and Its Implications for the Global Carbon Budget’,Canad. J. Forest Res. 16, 390–394.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, S., Gillespie, A. J. R., and Lugo, A. E.: 1989, ‘Biomass Estimation Methods for Tropical Forests with Applications to Forestry Inventory Data’,Forest Sci. 35, 881–902.Google Scholar
  10. Byrnes, B. H., Christianson, C. B., Holt, L. S., and Austin, E. R.: 1990, ‘Nitrous Oxide Emissions from the Nitrification of Nitrogen Fertilizers’, inSoils and the Greenhouse Effect, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.Google Scholar
  11. Carra, J. and Cossu, R.: 1990,International Perspectives on Municipal Solid Wastes and Sanitary Landfilling, Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  12. Casada, M. E. and Safely, L. M., Jr.: 1990, ‘Global Methane Emissions from Livestock and Poultry Manure’, A report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, North Carolina State University.Google Scholar
  13. Chinese Ministry of Forestry: 1990, Xinhua News Agency report inChina Daily (August 14).Google Scholar
  14. Cicerone, C. J. and Oremland, R.: 1988, ‘Biogeochemical Aspects of Atmospheric Methane’,Global Biogeochem. Cycl. 2, 299–327.Google Scholar
  15. Cicerone, C. J. and Shetter, J. D.: 1981, ‘Sources of Atmospheric Methane: Measurements in Rice Paddies and a Discussion’,J. Geophys. Res. 86(C8, 7203–7209.Google Scholar
  16. Cicerone, C. J., Shetter, J. D., and Delwiche, C. C.: 1983, ‘Seasonal Variation of Methane Flux from a California Rice Paddy’,J. Geophys. Res. 88(C15, 11 22–11 24.Google Scholar
  17. Cofer, III, W. R., Levine, J. S., Winstead, E. L., and Stocks, B. J., 1991, ‘New Estimates of Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Biomass Burning’,Nature 349, 689–691.Google Scholar
  18. Conrad, R., Seiler, W., and Bunse, G.: 1983, ‘Factors Influencing the Loss of Fertilizer Nitrogen into the Atmosphere as N2O’,J. Geophys. Res. 88(C11, 6709–6718.Google Scholar
  19. Crutzen, P. J.: 1991, ‘Methane's Sinks and Sources’,Nature 350, 380–381.Google Scholar
  20. Crutzen, P. J. and Andreae, M. O.: 1990, ‘Biomass Burning in the Tropics: Impact on Atmospheric Chemistry and Biogeochemical Cycles’,Science 250, 1669–1677.Google Scholar
  21. Crutzen, P. J., Aselmann, I., and Seiler, W.: 1986, ‘Methane Production by Domestic Animals, Wild Ruminants, Other Herbivorous Fauna, and Humans’,Tellus 38B, 271–284.Google Scholar
  22. Delmas, R. A. and Marenco, A.: 1991, ‘Sources and Sinks of Methane in the African Savanna, CH4 Emissions from Biomass Burning’,J. Geophys. Res. 96(D4, 7287–7299.Google Scholar
  23. Detwiler, R. P. and Hall, C. A. S.: ‘Tropical Forests and the Global Carbon Cycle’,Science 239, 42-47.Google Scholar
  24. Dupont: 1988, ‘Alternatives Development Poses Major Challenges’,Fluorocarbon/Ozone Update (December).Google Scholar
  25. Ebert, C.: 1990, ICF, Inc. Fairfax, Virginia, Personal Communication.Google Scholar
  26. ECE/FAO: 1985,The Forest Resources of the ECE Region (Europe, USSR, North America), The United Nations, Geneva.Google Scholar
  27. Eichner, M. J.: 1990, ‘Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Fertilized Soils: Summary of Available Data’,J. Environm. Qual. 19, 272–280.Google Scholar
  28. FAO: 1986,FAO Production Yearbook, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome.Google Scholar
  29. FAO: 1987a,FAO Fertilizer Yearbook, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome.Google Scholar
  30. FAO: 1987b,FAO Production Yearbook, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome.Google Scholar
  31. FAO: 1988a,FAO Fertilizer Yearbook, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome.Google Scholar
  32. FAO: 1988b, ‘An Interim Report on the State of the Forest Resources in the Developing Countries’, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome.Google Scholar
  33. FAO: 1990, ‘Interim Report on Forest Resources Assessment 1990 Project’, Committee on Forestry, Tenth Session, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome.Google Scholar
  34. FAO: 1991,FAO Production Yearbook, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome.Google Scholar
  35. FAO/UNEP: 1981,Tropical Forest Resources Assessment Project, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 3 Volumes, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  36. Farnum, P., Timmis, R., and Kulp, J.: 1983, ‘Biotechnology of Forest Yield’,Science 219, 694–702.Google Scholar
  37. Fearnside, P.M.: 1991, ‘Greenhouse Gas Contributions from Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia’, in Levine, J.S. (ed.),Global Biomass Burning, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  38. Fearnside, P. M., Tardin, A. T., and Filho, L. G. M.: 1990,Deforestation Rate in Brazilian Amazon, National Secretariat of Science and Technology, Brazil.Google Scholar
  39. Galbally, I. E.: 1985, In Galloway, J. N.,et al. (eds.),The Biogeochemical Cycling of Sulfur and Nitrogen in the Remote Atmosphere, Reidel Publishing Co., Boston.Google Scholar
  40. Garcia-Mendez, G., Matson, P. A., and Vitousek, P. M.: 1991, ‘Nitrogen Transformations and Nitrous Oxide in Flux in a Tropical Deciduous Forest in Mexico’,Oecologia 88, 362–366.Google Scholar
  41. Hao, W. M., Liu, M. H., Crutzen, P. J.: 1989, ‘Estimates of Annual and Regional Releases of CO2 and Other Trace Gases to the Atmosphere from Fires in the Tropics’, Presented at the Third International Symposium on Fire Ecology, Freiburg University, FRG, 16-20 May.Google Scholar
  42. Holzapfel-Pschorn, A. and Seiler, W.: 1986, ‘Methane Emission during a Cultivation Period from an Italian Rice Paddy’,J. Geophys. Res. 91(D11, 11 803–11 814.Google Scholar
  43. Houghton, R. A.: 1991, ‘Tropical Deforestation and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide’,Clim. Change 19, 99–118.Google Scholar
  44. Houghton, R. A., Hobbie, J. E., Melillo, J. M., Moore, B., Peterson, B. J., Shaver, G. R., Woodwell, G. M.: 1983, ‘Changes in the Carbon Content of Terrestrial Biota and Soils Between 1860 and 1980’,Ecolog. Monogr. 53(3, 235–262.Google Scholar
  45. ICF: 1990a, ‘Emissions Estimates by Country’, Memo from Craig Ebert and Amy Kim of ICF to Paul Schwengels and Dillip Ahuja of U.S. EPA Office of Global Change (September 25).Google Scholar
  46. ICF: 1990b, ‘Estimate of Methane Emissions to the Atmosphere from Coal Mining’, Presented by Boyer, II, C. M., to the International Workshop on Methane Emissions for the IPCC (RSWG).Google Scholar
  47. IPCC: 1990a, International Workshop on Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Systems, Coal Mining, and Waste Management Systems, Environment Agency of Japan, U.S. AID, and U.S. EPA, April 9–13.Google Scholar
  48. IPCC: 1990b, ‘Scientific Assessment of Climate Change’, Report Prepared for IPCC by Working Group I, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  49. IPCC: 1992,Climate Change 1992, Supplementary Report of the IPCC Scientific Assessment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  50. International Rice Research Institute: 1988,World Rice Statistics 1987, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines.Google Scholar
  51. JAERI: 1990, ‘Preliminary Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions’, S. Yasukawaet al., Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute.Google Scholar
  52. Kauffman, J. B.: 1990, ‘Biomass Burning in Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest: Carbon and Nitrogen Emissions’, Presentation at the Chapman Conference on Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic and Biospheric Implications, March 19–23, 1990, Williamsburg, Virginia.Google Scholar
  53. Kauppi, D. E., Mielikainen, K., Kuusela, K.: 1992, ‘Biomass and Carbon Budget of European Forests, 1971 to 1990’,Science 256, 70–74.Google Scholar
  54. Khalil, M. A. and Rasmussen, R. A.: 1990, ‘The Global Cycle of Carbon Monoxide’,Chemosphere 20, 227–242.Google Scholar
  55. Khalil, M. A. and Rasmussen, R. A.: 1991, ‘Methane Emissions from Rice Fields in China’,Environm. Sci. Technol. 25, 979–981.Google Scholar
  56. Khalil, M. A. and Rasmussen, R. A.: 1992, ‘The Global Sources of Nitrous Oxide’,J. Geophys. Res. 97, D13, 14651–14660.Google Scholar
  57. Linak, W. P., McSorley, J. A., Hall, R. A., Ryan, J. V., Srivastang, R. K., Wandt, J. O. L., and Merob, J. B., 1990, ‘Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion’,J. Geophys. Res. 95, 7533–7541.Google Scholar
  58. Logan, J. A., Prather, M. J., Wofsy, S. C., and McElroy, M. B.: 1981, ‘Tropospheric Chemistry: A Global Perspective’,J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7210–7254.Google Scholar
  59. Luizao, F., Matson, P., Livingston, G., Luizao, R., Vitousek, P.: 1989, ‘Nitrous Oxide Flux Following Tropical Land Clearing’,Global Biogeochem. Cycl. 3, 281–285.Google Scholar
  60. Marland, G.: 1988, ‘The Prospect of Solving the CO2 Problem Through Global Reforestation’, DOE/NBB-0082, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  61. Marland, G. and Boden, T.: 1992, ‘The Magnitude and Distribution of Fossil-Fuel-Related Carbon Releases’, in Heimann, M. (ed.),Carbon Cycle, NATO Advanced Study Institute, in press.Google Scholar
  62. Matson, P. A.: 1991, NASA Ames Research Center, Personal Communication (February).Google Scholar
  63. Matson, P. A. and Vitousek, P. M.: 1990, ‘Ecosystem Approach to a Global Nitrous Oxide Budget’,Bioscience 40, 667–672.Google Scholar
  64. Matson, P. A., Vitousek, P. M., Livingston, G. P., and Swanberg, N. A.: 1990, ‘Sources of Variation in Nitrous Oxide Flux from Amazonian Ecosystems’,J. Geophys. Res. 95(D10, 16 789–16 798.Google Scholar
  65. Matthews, E., Fung, I., and Lerner, J.: 1991, ‘Methane Emission from Rice Cultivation’,Global Biogeochem. Cycl. 5, 3–24.Google Scholar
  66. McSorley, J. A.: 1990, U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Personal Communication.Google Scholar
  67. Minami, K. and Ohsawa, A.: 1990, ‘Emission of Nitrous Oxide Dissolved in Drainage Water from Agricultural Land’,Soils and the Greenhouse Effect, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.Google Scholar
  68. Montgomery, T. A., Samuelsen, G. S., and Muzio, L. J.: 1989, ‘Continuous Infrared Analysis of N2O in Combustion Products’,J. Amer. Chemical Soc. 39, 721–726.Google Scholar
  69. Mosier, A. R. and Bronson, K. F.: 1990, ‘Effect of Encapsulated Calcium Carbide and Nitrapyrin on N2O Emission from Irrigated Corn’,Agron. Abstr. 82, 276.Google Scholar
  70. Mosier, A. R., Guenzi, W. D., and Scheizer, E. E.: 1986, ‘Soil Losses of Dinitrogen and Nitrous Oxide from Irrigated Crops in Northeastern Colorado’,Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 50, 344–348.Google Scholar
  71. Mosier, A., Schimel, D., Valentine, D., Bronson, K., and Parton, W.: 1991, ‘Methane and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Native, Fertilized and Cultivated Grasslands’,Nature 350, 330–332.Google Scholar
  72. Muzio, L. J. and Kramlich, J. C.: 1988, ‘An Artifact in the Measurement of N2O from Combustion Sources’, 1988,Geophys. Res. Lett. 15(12, 1369–1372.Google Scholar
  73. Myers, N.: 1989,Deforestation Rates in Tropical Forests and their Climatic Implications, A Friends of the Earth Report (December).Google Scholar
  74. Neue, H. U., Becker-Heidmann, P., and Scharpenseel, H. W.: 1990, ‘Organic Matter Dynamics, Soil Properties, and Cultural Practices in Rice Lands and their Relationship to Methane Production’, inSoils and the Greenhouse Effect, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.Google Scholar
  75. OECD/IEA: 1990a,Energy Balances of OECD Countries 1987-1988, OECD, Paris.Google Scholar
  76. OECD/IEA: 1990b,World Energy Statistics and Balances 1985-1988, OECD, Paris.Google Scholar
  77. OECD: 1991, ‘Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: Final Report from the OECD Experts Meeting, 18–21 February 1991’, Prepared for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.Google Scholar
  78. Orlich, J.: 1990, ‘Methane Emissions from Landfill Sites and Waste Water Lagoons’, inInternational Workshop on Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Systems, Coal Mining and Waste Management Systems, April 9–13, 1990, Washington, D.C., Funded by the Environment Agency of Japan, U.S. Agency for International Development, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  79. ORNL: 1989, in Marland, G., Boden, T. A., Griffin, R. C., Huang, S. F., Kanciruk, P., and Nelson, T. R. (eds.),Estimates of CO 2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Burning and Cement Manufacturing, # ORNL/CDIAC-25, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.Google Scholar
  80. ORNL: 1990, in Marland, G., Boden, T. A., Griffin, R. C., Huang, S. F., Kanciruk, P., and Nelson, T. R. (eds.),Estimates of CO 2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Burning and Cement Manufacturing, # ORNL/CDIAC-25, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.Google Scholar
  81. Pacey, J. G. and DeGier, J. P.: 1986, ‘The Factors Influencing Landfill Gas Production’, inEnergy from Landfill Gas', Proceedings of a Conference Sponsored by the U.K. Department of Energy and the U.S. Department of Energy.Google Scholar
  82. Peng, T. H.: 1986, ‘Land Use Change and Carbon Exchange in the Tropics: Estimates for the Entire Region’,Environm. Managem. 10, 573–575.Google Scholar
  83. Piccot, S. D., Chadha, A., DeWaters, J., Lynch, T., Marsosudiro, P., Tax, W., Walata, S., and Winkler, J. D.: 1990, Evaluation of Significant Anthropogenic Sources of Radiatively Important Trace Gases, Prepared for the Office of Research and Development, U.S. EPA.Google Scholar
  84. Post, W. M., Emanuel, W. R., Zinke, P. J., and Stangerberger, A. G.: 1982, ‘Soil Carbon Pools and World Life Zones’,Nature 298, 156–198.Google Scholar
  85. Preston, T. R. and Leng, R. A.: 1987,Matching Ruminant Production Systems with Available Resources in the Tropics and Sub-tropics, Penambul Books, Armidale, New South Wales.Google Scholar
  86. Quay, P. D., King, S. L., Stutsman, J., Wilbur, D. O., Steele, L. P., Fung, I., Gammon, R. H., Brown, T. A., Farwell, O. W., Grootes, P. M., and Schmidt, F. H.: 1991, ‘Carbon Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CH4: Fossil and Biomass Burning Source Strengths’,Global Biogeochem. Cycl. 5, 25–47.Google Scholar
  87. Radian: 1990,Emissions and Cost Estimates for Globally Significant Anthropogenic Combustion Sources of NO x,N 2 O, CH 4,CO, and CO 2, EPA-600/7-90-010, Prepared by Piccot, S. D., Buzun, J. A., and Frey, H. C., for U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development (May).Google Scholar
  88. Ramaswamy, V., Schwarzkopf, M. D., and Shine, K. P.: 1992, ‘Radiative Forcing of Climate from Halocarbon-Induced Global Stratospheric Ozone Loss’,Nature 355, 810–812.Google Scholar
  89. Richards, K. M.: 1990, ‘Landfill Gas: Working with Gaia’,Biodeterior. Abstr. 3(4, 317–331.Google Scholar
  90. Richards, J. F., Olson, J. S., and Rotty, R. M.: 1983, ‘Development of a Data Base for Carbon Dioxide Releases Resulting from Conversion of Land to Agricultural Uses’, Institute for Energy Analysis, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.Google Scholar
  91. Ronen, D., Magaritz, M., and Almon, E.: 1988, ‘Contaminated Aquifers are a Forgotten Component of the Global N2O Budget’,Nature 336, 756–759.Google Scholar
  92. Sahrawat, K. L. and Keeney, D. R.: 1986, ‘Nitrous Oxide Emission from Soils’,Advanc. Soil Sci. 4, 103–148.Google Scholar
  93. Schuetz, H., Holzapfel- Pschorn, A., Conrad, R., Rennenberg, H., and Seiler, W.: 1989a, ‘A Three-Year Continuous Record on the Influence of Daytime, Season and Fertilizer Treatment on Methane Emission Rates from an Italian Rice Paddy’,J. Geophys. Res. 94(D13, 16405–16416.Google Scholar
  94. Schuetz, H., Seiler, W., and Rennenberg, H.: 1989b, Presentation (by Rennenberg) at the International Conference on Soils and the Greenhouse Effect, 14–18 August 1989, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  95. Schuetz, H., Seiler, W., and Rennenberg, H.: 1990, ‘Soil and Land Use Related Sources and Sinks of Methane (CH4) in the Context of the Global Methane Budget’,Soils and the Greenhouse Effect, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.Google Scholar
  96. Seiler, W., Holzapfel-Pschorn, A., Conrad, R., and Scharffe, D.: 1984, ‘Methane Emission from Rice Paddies’,J. Atmos. Chem. 1, 241–268.Google Scholar
  97. Subak, S. and Raskin, P.: 1992, ‘Technical Description (Part III)’, inThe Greenhouse Gas Scenario System: User Guide, Stockholm Environment Institute.Google Scholar
  98. Subak, S., Hansen, E., and Seiber, J.: 1992,The Greenhouse Gas Scenario System: Country Data, Stockholm Environment Institute.Google Scholar
  99. TEAP: 1991, ‘Montreal Protocol: 1991 Assessment’, Report of the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel, Stephen Andersen and Steve Lee-Bapty (co-chairs), December.Google Scholar
  100. Thorneloe, S. A.: 1990, ‘Landfill Gas and the Greenhouse Effect’, Paper presented at the International Conference on Landfill Gas: Energy and Environment, October 17, 1990.Google Scholar
  101. Turner, R. E.: 1991, ‘Fertilizer and Climate Change’,Nature 349, 469–470.Google Scholar
  102. U.S. Bureau of Mines: 1988,Cement Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  103. U.S. EPA: 1988,Regulatory Impact Analysis, U.S. EPA Stratospheric Protection Program, Office of Air and Radiation.Google Scholar
  104. U.S. EPA: 1989a,Policy Options for Stabilizing Global Climate, Draft Report to Congress, edited by Lashof, D. and Tirpak, D., U.S. EPA Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation.Google Scholar
  105. U.S. EPA: 1989b, ‘Table Entitled Regional Shares of Total CFC/Halon - 1986’, U.S. EPA Office of Air and Radiation.Google Scholar
  106. United Nations: 1989a,World Population Prospects 1988, New York.Google Scholar
  107. United Nations: 1989b,1987 Energy Statistics Yearbook, New York.Google Scholar
  108. United Nations: 1990a,1988 Energy Statistics Yearbook, New York.Google Scholar
  109. United Nations: 1990b,United Nations Statistical Yearbook, 1988, New York.Google Scholar
  110. United Nations Environment Programme: 1989,Environmental Data Report, in co-operation with the World Resources Institute and U.K. Department of the Environment, Basil Blackwell Ltd., Oxford.Google Scholar
  111. United Nations Environment Programme: 1990, ‘Report of the Secretariat on the Reporting of Data in Accordance with Article 7 of the Montreal Protocol’, Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
  112. Vaghjiani, G. L. and Ravishankara, A. R.: 1991, ‘New Measurement of the Rate Coefficient for the Reaction of OH with Methane’,Nature 350, 406–409.Google Scholar
  113. Van Breemen, N. and Feijtel, T. C. J.: 1990, ‘Soil Processes and Properties Involved in the Production of Greenhouse Gases, with Special Relevance to Soil Taxonomic Systems’, inSoils and the Greenhouse Effect, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.Google Scholar
  114. Verma, S. B., Britton, R. A., Janson, M. D., Klopfenstein, T. J., Lauda, S. M., Norman, J. M., Schulte, D. D., Skopp, J. M., and Ullman, F. G.: 1988, Center for Bio-Atmosphere Studies of Trace Gas Dynamics, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.Google Scholar
  115. Von Hippel, D., Raskin, P., Subak, S., and Stavisky, D.: 1993, ‘Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy: Two Approaches’,Energy Policy 21, 691–702.Google Scholar
  116. Waddell, K. L., Oswald, D. D., and Powell, D. S.: 1989,Forest Statistics of the United States, 1987, United States Forest Service, Resource Bulletin PNW-RB-168 (September).Google Scholar
  117. WRI: 1990,World Resources 1990–91, in collaboration with UNEP and UNDP, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  118. WRI: 1992,World Resources 1992–93, in collaboration with UNEP and UNDP, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  119. Yagi, K. and Minami, K.: 1990, ‘Effects of Organic Matter Applications on Methane Emission from Japanese Paddy Fields’, inSoils and the Greenhouse Effect, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan Subak
    • 1
  • Paul Raskin
    • 2
  • David Von Hippel
    • 3
  1. 1.Stockholm Environment InstituteCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Stockholm Environment Institute - BostonTellus InstituteBostonUSA
  3. 3.Stockholm Environment InstituteEugeneUSA

Personalised recommendations