Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Usage patterns and contribution of fermented foods to the nutrient intakes of low income households in Emene, Nigeria

  • 55 Accesses

  • 6 Citations

Abstract

This study investigated the usage, consumption pattern and chemical composition of fermented foods consumed in 191 rural households (1 030 individuals) in Emene. The result showed that fermented foods were widely used and consumed by most age groups (under 2 years to adults) because of poor socioeconomic status. Fermentation period varied with type of food and was mostly carried out as a means of detoxifying certain foods. Generally, fermented foods contributed substantially to the daily caloric (46.3 to 79.9% for males and 57.5 to 78% for females); calcium (33.8 to 63.5% for males and 48.3 to 55.4% for females); iron (34.4 to 58.6% for males and 47.4 to 74.6% for females); and thiamin (23 to 58.5% for males and 37.5 to 60% for females) intakes. The contributions of fermented foods to protein (10 to 40.7%) and ascorbic acid (1.9 to 18.7%) intakes were however, low. When compared with the FAO recommendations, the daily intakes of protein, calcium, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid by the subjects were low due to large consumption of starchy root crops. Poor financial status was the most limiting factor to adequate nutrient intake. Such results point out the need for nutrition education related to improved methods of preparation and food selection.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Odunfa SA (1985a) African fermented foods: from art of science. Proceedings of IFS/UNU Workshop, Douala, pp 17–33.

  2. 2.

    Steinkraus KH (1985) Potential of African indigenous fermented foods. In: Development of indigenous fermented foods and food technology in Africa. Proceedings from the IFS/UNU Workshop, Douala, pp 35–60.

  3. 3.

    Odunfa SA (1985b) African fermented foods. ed by Wood BJB Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London, 2: 155–191.

  4. 4.

    Odunfa SA (1983) Carbohydrate changes in fermenting locust bean duringiru preparation. (Qual Plant) Plant Foods Hum Nutr 32: 3–10.

  5. 5.

    Ihekoronye AJ, Ngoddy PO (1985) Integrated food science and technology for tropics. Macmillan publishers, London, pp 270–271.

  6. 6.

    Nout MJR (1985) Upgrading traditional biotechnological process. In: Development of indigenous fermented foods and food technology in Africa. Proceedings from IFS/UNU Workshop, Douala, p 91.

  7. 7.

    Pearson D (1976) The chemical analysis of foods. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.

  8. 8.

    AOAC (1980) Official Methods of Analysis, 13th ed. Washington DC: Assoc. Official Analytical Chemists.

  9. 9.

    Platts BS (1975) Tables of representative values of foods commonly used in tropical countries. London: HMSO.

  10. 10.

    FAO (1969) Food composition tables for use in Africa. Food and Agricultural Organisation, Rome.

  11. 11.

    FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) Energy and protein requirements. Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Tech Report Series. No. 724, Geneva.

  12. 12.

    WHO (1974) Handbook on human nutritional requirements. World Health Organisation Monograph Series No. 61, World Health Organisation, Geneva.

  13. 13.

    Steel RGD, Torrie JH (1980) Principles and Procedures of statistics with reference to the biological sciences. McGraw-Hill, New York, London and Toronto.

  14. 14.

    Nnanyelugo et al. (1990) Nutritional status of cassava farm households in Ohosu Area of Bendel State, Nigeria. Tech Report on Nutrition Studies. University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

  15. 15.

    Nnanyelugo DO (1984) Evaluation of milk and nutrient intakes of school children in Nigeria. Appetite 5: 175–185.

  16. 16.

    Ndubuaku AO, Uwaegbute AC, Nnanyelugo DO (1989) Flatulence and other discomforts associated with consumption of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Appetite 13: 171–181.

  17. 17.

    Obizoba IC, Atu LN (1993) Production and Chemical evaluation of some food condiments of Nigeria. (Qual Plant) Plant Foods Hum Nutr 44: 249–254.

  18. 18.

    Achinewu SC (1985) The Effect of Some Indigenous Nigerian Seeds on Some Biological Changes and Composition of thiamin, riboflavin and niacin. In: Development of indigenous fermented foods and food technology in Africa. Proceedings from the IFS/UNU Workshop, Douala, pp 416–428.

  19. 19.

    Kazanas N, Fields ML (1981) Nutrition improvement of sorghum by fermentation. J Food Sci 46: 819–821.

  20. 20.

    Ene-Obong HN, Akosa LM (1993) Adolescents living in boarding houses in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria 1: Meal patterns, nutrition knowledge and nutrient intake. Ecol Food Nutr 30: 179–193.

  21. 21.

    Nnanyelugo DO (1982) Nutritional practices and food intake measurements and their relationship to socioeconomic grouping, location and their apparent nutritional adequacy in children. Appetite 3: 229–241.

  22. 22.

    Nnanyelugo DO, King J, Ene-Obong HN, Ngoddy PO (1985) Seasonal variations and the contribution of cowpea and other legumes to nutrient intakes in Anambra State, Nigeria. Ecol Food Nutr 17: 271–287.

  23. 23.

    Nnanyelugo DO, Okeke EC (1987) Food habits and nutrient intakes of Nigerian University students in traditional halls of residence J Am College Nutr 6: 369–374.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to N. Onofiok.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Onofiok, N., Nnanyelugo, D.O. & Ukwondi, B.E. Usage patterns and contribution of fermented foods to the nutrient intakes of low income households in Emene, Nigeria. Plant Food Hum Nutr 49, 199–211 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01093216

Download citation

Key words

  • Fermented foods
  • Usage patterns
  • Nutrient contribution
  • Low socioeconomic group
  • Rural Nigeria