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Cryopreservation of encapsulated shoot primordia induced in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) hairy root cultures

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Shoot primordia induced inArmoracia rusticana Gaertn. Mey. et Scherb. (horseradish) hairy root cultures were successfully cryopreserved by two cryogenic procedures. Encapsulated shoot primordia were precultured on solidified Murashige-Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5M sucrose for 1 day and then dehydrated with a highly concentrated vitrification solution (PVS2) for 4 h at 0°C prior to a plunge into liquid nitrogen. The survival rate of encapsulated vitrified primordia amounted to 69%. In a revised encapsulation-dehydration technique, the encapsulated shoot primordia were precultured with a mixture of 0.5M sucrose and 1M or 1.5M glycerol for 1 day to induce dehydration tolerance and then subjected to air-drying prior to a plunge into liquid nitrogen. The survival rate of encapsulated dried primordia was more than 90%, and the revived primordia produced shoots within 2 weeks after plating. A long-term preservation of shoot primordia was also achieved by the technique. Thus, this revised encapsulation-dehydration technique appears promising as a routine method for the cryopreservation of shoot primordia of hairy roots.

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PVS2 :

Vitrification solution

LN :

liquid nitrogen

BA :



α-naphthalene-acetic acid

MS :

Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium


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Correspondence to K. Hirata.

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Communicated by F. Constabel

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Phunchindawan, M., Hirata, K., Sakai, A. et al. Cryopreservation of encapsulated shoot primordia induced in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) hairy root cultures. Plant Cell Reports 16, 469–473 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01092768

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Key words

  • Cryopreservation
  • Encapsulation-dehydration
  • Encapsulation-vitrification
  • Hairy roots
  • Horseradish shoot primordia