Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 48, Issue 4, pp 349–365 | Cite as

Effects of soaking, cooking and fermentation on composition, in-vitro starch digestibility and nutritive value of common beans

  • Zacharie Barampama
  • Ronald E. Simard


A common bean variety, grown in Burundi, was either fermented, soaked and/or cooked, and then assessed for nutrient composition, in-vitro starch digestibility and protein nutritive value. A decrease in ash, most minerals, vitamins, and some essential amino acids was noted for soaked, cooked and soaked-cooked beans. Compared to untreated beans, soaking decreased soluble sugar (9.8 percent) but increased starch (7.3 percent) and soluble fiber (16.9 percent). In cooked beans, an increase in soluble sugar (1.5 percent), and a decrease in thiamine (81.7 percent), starch (24.6 percent) and soluble fiber (16.6 percent) and nitrogen (2.9 percent) contents were observed. Crude fiber (6.9 percent) and starch (10.0 percent) increased while fat (17.6 percent), fatty acids (linoleic: 10.7 percent; linolenic: 14.3 percent) and soluble sugars (25.4 percent) and nitrogen (14.4 percent) decreased in soaked-cooked beans. Fermentation increased potassium (11.6 percent), soluble fiber (18.9 percent), and some amino acids but decreased fatty acids (linoleic: 13.5 percent; linolenic: 19.9 percent), soluble sugar (75.2 percent) and vitamin (riboflavin: 41.0 percent; niacin: 24.5 percent) contents in common beans. However, the in-vitro starch digestibility was greatly improved (12.3 percent) by cooking while it decreased in soaked beans (29.2 percent). Soaking-cooking and fermentation did not have any significant effect on the digestibility of common bean starch. Finally, among the five treatments applied to common beans, only fermentation showed a significant improvement (8.3 percent) on the protein nutritive value of this legume.

Key words

Processing Composition Starch digestibility Nutritive value Common beans 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Salunkhe DK, Kadam SS (1989) CRC Handbook of World Food Legumes Nutritional Chemistry, Processing Technology and Utilization, Vol. 1 Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Koehler HH, Chang CH, Scheier G, Burke DW (1987) Nutrient composition, protein quality and sensory properties of thirty-six cultivars of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). J Food Sci 52: 1335–1340.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Doughty T, Walker A (1982) Etude FAO: Alimentation et nutrition. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bressani R (1993) Grain quality of common beans. Food Rev Int 9: 237–297.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Deshpande, SS, Cheryan, M. (1983) Changes in phytic acid, tannins, and trypsin inhibitory activity on soaking of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Nutr Rep Int 27: 371–377.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nnann IA, Phillips RD (1990) Protein and starch digestibility and flatulence potential of germinated cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata). J Food Sci 55: 151–153.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Buckle KA, Sambudi H (1990) Effect of soaking and boiling treatments on the quality of winged bean seeds. J Sci Food Agric 53: 379–388.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Van der Poel TFB, Blonk J, van Zuilichem DJ, Van Dort MG (1990) Thermal inactivation of lectins and trypsin inhibitor activity during steam processing of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and effects on protein quality. J Sci Food Agric 53: 215–228.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Akinlosotu A, Akinyele IO (1991) The effect of germination on the oligosaccharide and nutrient content of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata). Food Chem 39: 157–165.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chattopadhyay H, Banerjee S (1953) Effect of germination on the biological value of proteins and the trypsin inhibitor activity of common indian pulses. Ind J Med Res 41: 185–189.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barampama Z, Simard RE (1993) Nutrient composition, protein quality and antinutritional factors of some varieties of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in Burundi. Food Chem 47: 159–167.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lopez OP, Harry GI, Rivera RM (1987) Development of a fermentation procedure to produce a tempeh related food using common beans as substrate. Biotechnol Letter 9: 333–338.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ibrahim MH, Antai SP (1986) Chemical changes during the fermentation of African locust bean (Parkia filicoidea Welw) seeds for production of Daddawa. Qual Plant Foods Hum Nutr 36: 179–184.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ejiofor MAN, Oti E (1987) Studies on the fermentation of seeds of the African oil bean tree (Pentaclethra macrophylla). Int Tree Crops J 4: 135–144.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    AOAC (1980) Official Methods of Analysis, 13th ed. Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Spackmann DH, Stein WH, More S (1958) Automatic recording apparatus for use in the chromatograph of amino acids. Anal Chem 30: 1190–1206.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Slack PT (1987) Analytical methods manual Second Edition Food RA method: qualitative fat extraction (room temperature), method 5.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bannon CD, Craske JD, Hai NT, Harper NL, O'Rourke KL (1982) Analysis of fatty acid methyl esters with high accuracy and reliability, II: Methylation of fats and oils with boron trifluoride-methanol. J Chromat, 247: 63–69.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    AOAC (1980) Official Methods of Analysis, 13th ed. Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cerning J, Guilbot J (1973) Changes in carbohydrate composition during maturation of wheat and barley kernel. Cereal Chem 50: 220–225.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Clegg KM (1956) The application of the anthrone reagent to the estimation of starch in cereals. J Sci Food Agric 7: 40–43.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yemm EW, Willis AJ (1954) The estimation of carbohydrates in plant extract by anthrone. Biochem J 57: 508–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    AACC (1980) Approved methods of the AACC, 8th ed. St-Paul, MN: American Association of Cereal Chemists.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Singh U, Kherdekar MS, Jambunathan R (1982) Studies on Desi and Kabuli chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars. The levels of amylase inhibitors, levels of oligosaccharides and in-vitro starch digestibility. J Food Sci 47: 510–512.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stott JA, Smith H (1966) Microbiological assay of protein quality withTetrahymena pyriformis W. Br J Nutr 20: 663–673.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Steel RGD, Torrie JH (1980) Principles and procedures of statistics, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Odunfa SA, Adesomoju A (1986) Fatty acid composition of African locust beans (Parkia bilobosa). Chem Microbiol Technol Lebesm 10: 125–127.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Augustin J, Beck CB, Kalffleish G, Kagel LC (1981) Variation in the vitamin and mineral content of raw and cooked commercialPhaseolus vulgaris classes. Food Technol 3: 75–76.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Eka OU (1980) Effect of fermentation on the nutrient status of locust beans. Food Chem 5: 303–308.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    El Nahry F, Darwish NM, Tharwat S (1977) Effect of preparation and cooking on the nutritive value of local kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Qual Plant 2: 141–150.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mital BK, Steinkraus KH (1975) Utilization of oligosaccharides by lactic acid bacteria during fermentation of soy milk. J Food Sci 40: 114–118.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Akinyele IO, Akinlosotu A (1991) Effect of soaking, dehulling and fermentation on the oligosaccharides and nutrient content of cowpea (Vigna ungiculata). Food Chem 41: 43–53.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bishnoi S, Khetarpaul N (1993) Effect of domestic processing and cooking methods on in-vitro starch digestibility of different pea cultivars (Pisum sativum). Food Chem 47: 177–182.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    de Leon LF, Elias LG, Bressani R (1992) Effects of salt solutions on the cooking time, nutritional and sensory characteristics of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Food Res Inter 25: 131–136.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chompreeda PT, Fields ML (1984) Effects of heat and natural fermentation on amino acids, flatus producing compounds, lipid, oxidation and trypsin inhibitor in blends of soybean and cornmeal. J Food Sci 49: 563–565.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zacharie Barampama
    • 1
  • Ronald E. Simard
    • 1
  1. 1.Département de Science et Technologie des AlimentsUniversité LavalSte-FoyCanada

Personalised recommendations