Advertisement

Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 48, Issue 4, pp 287–295 | Cite as

Protein profiles and organoleptic properties of bread from wheat flour and full-fat or defatted fermented cocoa bean powder

  • C. Y. Aremu
  • M. A. Agiang
  • J. O. I. Ayatse
Article

Abstract

This study has shown that the protein in bread may be quantitatively increased significantly by addition of full-fat or defatted cocoa powder to white flour. The recipe in which white flour is incorporated with up to 10 percent defatted cocoa powder gives bread that is nearly as well accepted as white bread, but with a significantly higher protein content than the latter. However, organoleptic acceptability drops with increasing percentage of cocoa supplementation. The bitter taste of theobromine, which is normally present in high amounts in cocoa bean, is thought to be responsible for this problem of poor acceptability of high cocoa breads. This problem will have to be addressed in order to enhance the scope of increasing bread protein by cocoa supplementation.

Key words

Cocoa Wheat Composite Bread Protein 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Are LA, Gwynne-Jones DR (1974). Uses of cocoa-commercial and local. In: Are IA, Gwynne-Jones DR (Eds). Cacao in West Africa. Oxford University Press, Ibadan, Nigeria, pp. 121–125.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Igene JO, Negbenedor CA, Nkana I (1991). Food Science and technology in Nigerian agricultural and industrial development. J Agr Sci Technol 1: 54–65.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lopez AS, Ferrira HIS, Ilamosa A, Romen AS (1985) Present status of cocoa in Brazil. In: Proc 9th Intl Cocoa Res Conf Lome, Togo. pp 425–435.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Oyenuga VA (1968) Their chemistry and nutritive value. In: Oyenuga (ed.) Nigeria's feeding-stuffs (2nd edn.) IUP, Ibadan, Nigeria. pp 55–60.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Owusu-Domfeh K, Christensen DA, Owen BD (1970). Nutritive value of some Ghanaian feedstuffs. Can J Ani Sci 50: 1–14.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Braude R (1943) Toxic effects in the feeding of cocoa meal to pigs. Vet J 99: 302–307.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Osusu-Domfeh K (1972) The future of cocoa and its by-products in feeding of livestock. Ghana J Agr Sci 5: 57–64.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Adenikinju, SA, Badaru K, Obatolu CR (1989) Harvesting, processing and storage of cacao, kola, coffee, cashew and tea. In: Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (ed.) Progress in Tree Crop Research (2nd edn), Ibadan, Nigeria. pp 47–49.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shambe T, Akinrele IA (1974) Bread and confectionaries baking tests with composite flour. Nig J Sci 8: 59–70.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    AOAC (1970) Official Methods of Analysis. Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Agiang, MA (1993) Evaluation of the nutritive value of bread baked from a composite flour of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and fermented cocoa beans (Theobroma cocao). M.Sc. Thesis, University of Calabar, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    AOAC (1975) Official Methods of Analysis. Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Adegbola, AA, Omole, TA (1973) A simple technique for preparing discarded cocoa beanmeal for use as livestock feed. Nig Agric J 10: 72–80.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Akinrele, IA, Edwards, CA (1971) An assessment of the nutritive value of a maize-soya mixture “soy-ogi” as a weaning food in Nigeria. Br J Nutr 26: 177–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Y. Aremu
    • 1
  • M. A. Agiang
    • 1
  • J. O. I. Ayatse
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical SciencesUniversity of CalabarCalabarNigeria

Personalised recommendations