Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 48, Issue 4, pp 287–295 | Cite as

Protein profiles and organoleptic properties of bread from wheat flour and full-fat or defatted fermented cocoa bean powder

  • C. Y. Aremu
  • M. A. Agiang
  • J. O. I. Ayatse


This study has shown that the protein in bread may be quantitatively increased significantly by addition of full-fat or defatted cocoa powder to white flour. The recipe in which white flour is incorporated with up to 10 percent defatted cocoa powder gives bread that is nearly as well accepted as white bread, but with a significantly higher protein content than the latter. However, organoleptic acceptability drops with increasing percentage of cocoa supplementation. The bitter taste of theobromine, which is normally present in high amounts in cocoa bean, is thought to be responsible for this problem of poor acceptability of high cocoa breads. This problem will have to be addressed in order to enhance the scope of increasing bread protein by cocoa supplementation.

Key words

Cocoa Wheat Composite Bread Protein 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Y. Aremu
    • 1
  • M. A. Agiang
    • 1
  • J. O. I. Ayatse
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical SciencesUniversity of CalabarCalabarNigeria

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