There large inversions in the chloroplast genomes and one loss of the chloroplast generps16 suggest an early evolutionary split in the genusAdonis (Ranunculaceae)
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Detailed chloroplast DNA restriction site maps for two species in the genusAdonis (Ranunculaceae),A. annua andA. vernalis, were constructed using single and double digests and the sizes of these genomes are 151.3 and 156.5 kilobases, respectively. Three inversions were found inAdonis, relative to the gene order in the majority of land plants. These rearrangements represent two different gene orders and mark an ancient split in the evolutionary history of this genus. Gene probes were used in order to map the endpoints of the inversions and the inverted repeat regions. The inverted repeat is approximately 400 base pairs shorter inA. annua than inA. vernalis. Two inversions, 39 kilobases and 24 kilobases in size, occur inA. annua and one inversion, 42 kilobases in size, is present in the remaining investigated species ofAdonis. The generps16 is absent from the chloroplast genome inAdonis annua. Restriction sites for eleven restriction endonucleases were mapped forA. annua, A. vernalis and four additional species ofAdonis and two species ofTrollius. Eighty-six phylogenetically informative sites were analysed cladistically in order to evaluate the main clades withinAdonis.
Key wordsAdonis Ranunculaceae Phylogeny cladistics molecular systematics chloroplast DNA structural rearrangements inversions gene loss rps16
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