Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 218, Issue 1–2, pp 113–123 | Cite as

Molecular phylogeny ofForsythia (Oleaceae) based on chloroplast DNA variation

  • Ki-Joong Kim


Phylogenetic relationships of ten wild species and several cultivars ofForsythia were reconstructed based on the chloroplast (cp) DNA variation. A total of 216 cpDNA variants, 44 of which were potentially phylogenetically informative, was detected using 24 restriction endonucleases. Phylogenetic analysis usingFontanesia andAbeliophyllum as outgroups revealed four well defined species groups in the genus: 1)F. suspensa, 2)F. europaea — F. giraldiana, 3)F. ovata — F. japonica — F. viridissima, and 4)F. koreana — F. manshurica — F. saxatilis. The amount of support for each monophyletic group was evaluated by various methods including character number, decay analysis, parsimony bootstrapping, Neighbour-Joining (NJ) — bootstrapping, NJ-jackknifing, and the topology-dependent permutation tail probability (T-PTP) test. The data do not support the hybrid origin ofF. intermedia fromF. suspensa andF. viridissima. The disjunctly distributed European species,F. europaea, was identified as a sister species of the ChineseF. giraldiana and it was probably derived through recent long distance dispersal.

Key words

Forsythia Oleaceae Chloroplast DNA restriction site variation phylogenetic analysis clade support analysis biogeography cultivar 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ki-Joong Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyYeungnam UniversityKyeongsan, KyeongbukKorea

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