Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 49, Issue 4, pp 631–641 | Cite as

Toothpaste lava: Characteristics and origin of a lava structural type transitional between pahoehoe and aa

  • Scott K. Rowland
  • George P. L. Walker


Toothpaste lava, an important basalt structural type which illustrates the transition from pahoehoe to aa, is particularly well displayed on the 1960 Kapoho lava of Kilauea Volcano. Its transitional features stem from a viscosity higher than that of pahoehoe and a rate of flow slower than that of aa. Viscosity can be quantified by the limited settling of olivine phenocrysts and rate of flow by field observations related to the low-angle slope on which the lava flowed. Much can be learned about the viscosity, rheologic condition, and flow velocity of lavas long after solidification by analyses of their structural characteristics, and it is possible to make at least a semiquantitative assessment of the numerical values of these parameters.


Viscosity Structural Characteristic Flow Velocity Settling Field Observation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott K. Rowland
    • 1
  • George P. L. Walker
    • 1
  1. 1.Hawaii Institute of GeophysicsHonoluluUSA

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