Advertisement

Social Indicators Research

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 69–92 | Cite as

Tests of the causal directions of global — Life facet satisfaction relationships

  • Charles E. Lance
  • Alison G. Mallard
  • Alex C. Michalos
Article

Abstract

Previous research generally has supported multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) of the processes by which individuals arrive at judgments of satisfaction with various aspects of their lives as well as with life overall. However, the nature of possible causal relationships between overall and life facet satisfaction has been ignored. The purpose of this study was to extend MDT by testing alternative theoretical models which specified Bottom-up, Top-Down, and Bidirectional relationships between overall life satisfaction and satisfaction with 11 life facets in a sample of 1354 U.S. college students. Results most strongly favored the Bidirectional model in which the overall — life facet satisfaction relationship varied across life domains. The need to identify boundary conditions which determine the direction of the overall — life facet satisfaction relationship is discussed.

Keywords

Boundary Condition Theoretical Model College Student Life Satisfaction Causal Relationship 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbey, A. and F. M. Andrews: 1985, ‘Modeling the psychological determinants of life quality’, Social Indicators Research 16, pp. 1–34.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, F. M.: 1991, ‘Stability and change in levels and structure of subjective well-being: USA 1972 and 1988’, Social Indicators Research 25, pp. 1–30.Google Scholar
  3. Andrews, F. M. and R. Crandall: 1976, ‘The validity of self-reported well being’, Social Indicators Research 3, pp. 1–19.Google Scholar
  4. Andrews, F. M. and S. B. Withey: 1974, ‘Developing measures of perceived life quality: Results from several national surveys’, Social Indicators Research 1, pp. 1–26.Google Scholar
  5. Andrews, F. M. and S. B. Withey: 1976, Social Indicators of Well-being: Americans' Perceptions of Life Quality (Plenum, New York).Google Scholar
  6. Avery, R. D., T. J. Bouchard, Jr., N. L. Segal and L. M. Abraham: 1989, ‘Job satisfaction: Environment and genetic components’, Journal of Applied Psychology 74, pp. 187–192.Google Scholar
  7. Bharadwaj, L. and E. A. Wilkening: 1977, ‘The prediction of perceived well-being’, Social Indicators Research 4, pp. 421–439.Google Scholar
  8. Cooper, W. H.: 1981, ‘Ubiquitous halo’, Psychological Bulletin 90, pp. 218–244.Google Scholar
  9. Costa, P. T., Jr. and R. R. McCrae: 1980, ‘Influence of extroversion and neuroticism on subjective well-being: Happy and unhappy people’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 38, pp. 668–678.Google Scholar
  10. Cragin, J. P.: 1983, ‘The nature of importance perceptions: A test of a cognitive model’, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 31, pp. 262–276.Google Scholar
  11. Crandall, R.: 1973, ‘The measurement of self-esteem and related constructs’, in J. P. Robinson and P. R. Shaver (eds.), Measures of Psychological Attitudes (Institute of Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor), pp. 45–67.Google Scholar
  12. Cronbach, L. J. and L. Furby: 1970, ‘How should we measure “change” — or should we?’, Psychological Bulletin 74, pp. 68–80.Google Scholar
  13. Diener, E.: 1984, ‘Subjective well being’, Psychological Bulletin 95, pp. 542–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Edwards, J. R.: (in press), ‘Problems with the use of profile similarity indices in the study of congruence in organizational research’, Personnel Psychology.Google Scholar
  15. Farkas, A. J. and L. E. Tetrick,: 1989, ‘A three-wave longitudinal analysis of the causal ordering of satisfaction and commitment on turnover decisions’, Journal of Applied Psychology 74, pp. 855–868.Google Scholar
  16. Feldman, J. M. and J. G. Lynch, Jr.: 1988, ‘Self-generated validity and other effects of measurement on belief, attitude, intention and behavior’, Journal of Applied Psychology 73, pp. 421–435.Google Scholar
  17. Gauthier, B.: 1987, ‘Client satisfaction in program evaluation’, Social Indicators Research 19, pp. 229–254.Google Scholar
  18. Gerhart, B.: 1987, ‘How important are dispositional factors as determinants of job satisfaction? Implications for job design and other personnel programs’, Journal of Applied Psychology 72, pp. 366–373.Google Scholar
  19. Harlow, L. L. and M. D. Newcomb: 1990, ‘Towards a general hierarchical model of meaning and satisfaction in life’, Multivariate Behavioral Research 25, pp. 387–405.Google Scholar
  20. Harrison, D. A. and M. E. McLaughlin: 1993, ‘Cognitive processes in self-report responses: Tests of item context effects in work attitude measures’, Journal of Applied Psychology 78, pp. 129–140.Google Scholar
  21. Harwood, M. K. and R. W. Rice: 1992, ‘An examination of referent selection processes underlying job satisfaction’, Social Indicators Research 27, pp. 1–39.Google Scholar
  22. Headey, B., E. Holmstrom and A. Wearing: 1985, ‘Models of well-being and ill-being’, Social Indicators Research 17, pp. 211–234.Google Scholar
  23. Headey, B., R. Veenhoven and A. Wearing, 1991, ‘Top-down versus bottom-up theories of subjective well-being’, Social Indicators Research 24, pp. 81–100.Google Scholar
  24. James, L. R. and A. P. Jones: 1980, ‘Perceived job characteristics and job satisfaction: An examination of reciprocal causation’, Personnel Psychology 33, pp. 97–135.Google Scholar
  25. James, L. R., S. A. Mulaik and J. M. Brett: 1982, Causal Analysis: Assumptions, Models, and Data (Sage, Beverly Hills, CA).Google Scholar
  26. James, L. R. and L. E. Tetrick: 1986, ‘Confirmatory analytic tests of three causal models relating job perceptions to job satisfaction’, Journal of Applied Psychology 71, pp. 77–82.Google Scholar
  27. James, L. R. and B. K. Singh: 1981, ‘An introduction to the logic, assumptions, and basic analytic procedures of two-stage least squares’, Psychological Bulletin 85, pp. 1104–1122.Google Scholar
  28. Jöreskog, K. G. and D. Sörbom: 1986, LISREL-VI User's Guide (Scientific Software, Mooresville, IN).Google Scholar
  29. Johns, G.: 1981, ‘Difference score measures of organizational behavior variables: A critique’, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 27, pp. 443–463.Google Scholar
  30. Keller, L. M., T. J. Bouchard, Jr., R. D. Arvey, N. L. Segal and R. V. Dawis: 1992, ‘Work values: Genetic and environmental influences’, Journal of Applied Psychology 77, pp. 79–88.Google Scholar
  31. Keon, T. L. and B. McDonald: 1982, ‘Job satisfaction and life satisfaction: An empirical evaluation of their interrelationship’, Human Relations 35, pp. 167–180.Google Scholar
  32. Lance, C. E.: 1991, ‘Evaluation of a structural model relating job satisfaction, organizational commitment and precursors to voluntary turnover’, Multivariate Behavioral Research 26, pp. 137–162.Google Scholar
  33. Lance, C. E., J. A. LaPointe and A. M. Stewart (in press), ‘A test of the context dependency of three causal models of halo rater error’, Journal of Applied Psychology.Google Scholar
  34. Lance, C. E., G. J. Lautenschlager, C. E. Sloan and P. E. Varca: 1989, ‘A comparison between bottom-up, top-down, and bidirectional models of relationships between global and life facet satisfaction’, Journal of Personality 57, pp. 601–624.Google Scholar
  35. Lance, C. E. and C. E. Sloan (in press). ‘Relationships between overall and life facet satisfactions: A multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) study’, Social Indicators Research.Google Scholar
  36. Lance, C. E., M. S. Teachout and T. M. Donnelly: 1992, ‘Specification of the criterion construct space: An application of hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis’, Journal of Applied Psychology 77, pp. 437–452.Google Scholar
  37. Larsen, R. J., E. Diener and R. A. Emmons: 1985, ‘An evaluation of subjective well-being measures’, Social Indicators Research 17, pp. 1–17.Google Scholar
  38. Levin, I. and J. P. Stokes: 1989, ‘Dispositional approach to job satisfaction: Role of negative affectivity’, Journal of Applied Psychology 74, pp. 752–758.Google Scholar
  39. Liang, J. and K. A. Bollen: 1983, ‘The structure of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale: A reinterpretation’, Journal of Gerontology 38, pp. 181–189.Google Scholar
  40. Marsh, H. W., J. R. Balla and R. P. McDonald: 1989, ‘Goodness-of-fit indexes in confirmatory factor analysis: The effect of sample size’, Psychological Bulletin 103, pp. 391–410.Google Scholar
  41. Mastekaasa, A: 1984, ‘Multiplicative and additive models of job and life satisfaction’, Social Indicators Research 14, pp. 141–163.Google Scholar
  42. Mathieu, J. E.: 1991, ‘A cross-level nonrecursive model of the antecedents of organizational commitment and satisfaction’, Journal of Applied Psychology 76, pp. 607–618.Google Scholar
  43. McDonald, R. P. and H. W. Marsh: 1990, ‘Choosing a multivariate model: Noncentrality and goodness of fit’, Psychological Bulletin 107, pp. 247–255.Google Scholar
  44. McKennell, A. C. and F. M. Andrews: 1980, ‘Models of cognition and affect in perceptions of well-being’, Social indicators Research 8, pp. 257–298.Google Scholar
  45. McNeil, J. K.: 1986, ‘Subjective well-being in later life: Issues concerning measurement and prediction’, Social Indicators Research 18, pp. 35–70.Google Scholar
  46. Michalos, A. C.: 1980, ‘Satisfaction and happiness’, Social Indicators Research 8, pp. 385–342.Google Scholar
  47. Michalos, A. C.: 1985, ‘Multiple discrepancies theory (MDT)’, Social Indicators Research 16, pp. 347–413.Google Scholar
  48. Michalos, A. C.: 1986, ‘An application of multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) to seniors’, Social Indicators Research 18, pp. 349–373.Google Scholar
  49. Michalos, A. C.: 1989, ‘Discrepancies between perceived income and actual income’, Social Indicators Research 21, pp. 293–296.Google Scholar
  50. Michalos, A. C.: 1991a, Global Report on Student Well-being (Vol 1) (Springer-Verlag, New York).Google Scholar
  51. Michalos, A. C.: 1991b, Global Report on Student Well-being (Vol. 2) (Springer-Verlag, New York).Google Scholar
  52. Mulaik, S. A., L. R. James, J. VanAlstine, N. Bennett, S. Lind and C. D. Stilwell: 1989, ‘Evaluation of goodness-of-fit indices for structural equation models’, Psychological Bulletin 105, pp. 430–445.Google Scholar
  53. Neapolitan, J: 1988, ‘General symbolic definitions and subjective well-being’, Sociological Spectrum 8, pp. 153–168.Google Scholar
  54. Near, J. P., R. W. Rice and R. G. Hung: 1980, ‘Work and extra-work correlates of life and job satisfaction’, Academy of Management Review 5, pp. 415–429.Google Scholar
  55. Oliver, R. L. and W. O. Bearden: 1985, ‘Disconfirmation processes and consumer evaluations in product usage’, Journal of Business Research 13, pp. 235–246.Google Scholar
  56. Rice, R. W., D. B. McFarlin and D. E. Bennett: 1989, ‘Standards of comparison and job satisfaction’, Journal of Applied Psychology 74, pp. 591–598.Google Scholar
  57. Rice, R. W., S. M. Phillips and D. B. McFarlin: 1990, ‘Multiple discrepancies and pay satisfaction’, Journal of Applied Psychology 75, pp. 386–393.Google Scholar
  58. Rice, R. W., R. S. Peirce, R. P. Moyer and D. B. McFarlin: 1991, ‘Using discrepancies to predict the perceived quality of work life’, Journal of Business and Psychology 6, pp. 39–55.Google Scholar
  59. Rosenberg, M.: 1965, Society and the Adolescent Self Image (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ).Google Scholar
  60. Scarpello, V. and J. P. Campbell: 1983, ‘Job Satisfaction: Are all the parts there?’, Personnel Psychology 36, pp. 577–600.Google Scholar
  61. Schaubroeck, J.: 1990, ‘Investigating reciprocal causation in organizational behavior research’, Journal of Organizational Behavior 11, pp. 17–28.Google Scholar
  62. Schmitt, N. and A. G. Bedeian: 1982, ‘A comparison of LISREL and two-stage least squares analysis of a hypothesized life-job reciprocal relationship,’ Journal of Applied Psychology 67, pp. 806–817.Google Scholar
  63. Sloan, C. E.: 1990, Relations between Global Life and Domain Satisfaction: The Role of Domain Scope and Criticality. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens.Google Scholar
  64. Smith, C. S. and J. Tisak (in press). ‘Discrepancy measures of role stress revisited: New perspectives on old issues’, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.Google Scholar
  65. Smith, C. S., J. Tisak and A. M. Ryan: 1933, ‘Another look at difference scores in organizational behavior research’, Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  66. Smith, R. L., J. W. Ager, Jr. and D. L. Williams: 1992, ‘Suppressor variables in multiple regression/correlation’, Educational and Psychological Measurement 52, pp. 17–29.Google Scholar
  67. Sobel, M. E. and G. W. Bohrnstedt: 1985, ‘Use of null models in evaluating the fit of covariance structure models’, in N. B. Tuma (ed.), Sociological Methodology (Jossey-Bass, San Francisco), pp. 152–178.Google Scholar
  68. Stassen, M. A. and S. R. Staats: 1988, ‘Hope and happiness: A comparison of some discrepancies’, Social Indicators Research 20, pp. 45–58.Google Scholar
  69. Staw, B. M., N. E. Bell and J. A. Clausen: 1986, ‘The dispositional approach to job attitudes: A lifetime longitudinal investigation’, Administrative Science Quarterly 31, pp. 56–77.Google Scholar
  70. Staw, B. M. and J. Ross: 1985, ‘Stability in the midst of change: A dispositional approach to attitudes’, Journal of Applied Psychology 70, pp. 469–480.Google Scholar
  71. Stones, M. J. and A. Kozma: 1985, ‘Structural relationships among happiness scales: A second-order factor study’, Social Indicators Research 17, pp. 19–28.Google Scholar
  72. Tzelgov, J. and A. Henik: 1991, ‘Suppression situations in psychological research: Definitions, implications, and applications’, Psychological Bulletin 109, pp. 524–536.Google Scholar
  73. Vermunt, R., E. Spaans and F. Zorge: 1989, ‘Satisfaction, happiness and well-being of Dutch students’, Social Indicators Research 21, pp. 1–33.Google Scholar
  74. Watson, D. and L. A. Clark: 1984, ‘Negative affectivity: The disposition to experience aversive emotional states’, Psychological Bulletin 96, pp. 465–490.Google Scholar
  75. Wright, S. J.: 1985, ‘Health satisfaction: A detailed test of the multiple discrepancies theory’, Social Indicators Research 17, pp. 299–313.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles E. Lance
    • 1
  • Alison G. Mallard
    • 1
  • Alex C. Michalos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations