Advertisement

Social Indicators Research

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 199–233 | Cite as

Suicide and happiness: Seven tests of the connection

  • Jana Weerasinghe
  • Lorne Tepperman
Article

Abstract

Indirectly, this paper examines the empirical connections between suicide and happiness by looking at the connection of each with seven standard demographic characteristics. They are sex, age, race, parental status, marital status, religiosity and employed status. These seven are chosen because a lot of data are available. We then examine the relationship of these same seven variables to suicide. Our findings indicate that marital status, religiosity and employment status have a (predicted) similar effect on suicide and happiness. Parenthood has an unclear relationship with suicide and happiness. Finally, sex, age and race have dissimilar effects on suicide and happiness. On the basis of this admittedly preliminary analysis, it would be impossible to conclude that happiness and suicide are closely (if inversely) related. First, there is the chance that suicides or happiness levels have been systematically misreported. Second, there may be a problem with our lumping together happiness and satisfaction. Third, there may be a problem with the seven particular independent variables we examined. Had we examined a different seven (or seventy) we might have drawn a different conclusion. In particular, we might have done better with comparative (or cognitive) variables derived from multiple discrepancies theory (MDT), than with demographic ones. In the end, the connection between happiness and suicide is far from certain. More research is needed.

Keywords

Marital Status Demographic Characteristic Preliminary Analysis Employment Status Parental Status 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Argyle, M.: 1992, The Social Psychology of Everyday Life (Routledge, London).Google Scholar
  2. Ball, R. E.: 1983, ‘Marital status, household structure, and life satisfaction of black women’, Social Problems 30(4), pp. 400–409.Google Scholar
  3. Ball, R. E.: 1984, ‘Parental role satisfaction of black mothers in the United States’, International Journal of Sociology of the Family 14(1), pp. 33–46.Google Scholar
  4. Ball, R. E. and L. Robbins: 1986, ‘Marital status and life satisfaction among black Americans’, Journal of Marriage and the Family 48(2), pp. 389–394.Google Scholar
  5. Barry, B.: 1989, ‘Suicide: the ultimate escape’, Death Studies 13(2), pp. 185–190.Google Scholar
  6. Berlin, I. N.: 1987, ‘Suicide among American Indian adolescents: An overview’, Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior 17(30), pp. 218–132.Google Scholar
  7. Blazer, D. G., J. R. Bachar and K. G. Manton: 1986, ‘Suicide in late life: Review and commentary’, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 34(7), pp. 519–525.Google Scholar
  8. Bobys, R. S., D. Witt, G. D. Lowe and C. W. Peek: 1981, ‘Another methodological confounder: Comment on Witt, Lowe, Peek and Curry’, Social Forces 60(1), pp. 227–229.Google Scholar
  9. Bolger, N., G. Downey, E. Walker and P. Steininger: 1989, ‘The onset of suicidal ideation in childhood and adolescence’, Journal of Youth and Adolescence 18(2), pp. 175–190.Google Scholar
  10. Bourque, L. B., J. F. Kraus and B. J. Cosand: 1983, ‘Attributes of suicide in females’, Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior 13(2), pp. 123–138.Google Scholar
  11. Burvill, P. M.: 1972, ‘Recent decrease ratio of male/female suicide rates. Analysis of rates in selected countries, specific for age and sex’, International Journal of Social Psychiatry 18(3), pp. 137–139.Google Scholar
  12. Bush, J. A.: 1976, ‘Suicide and blacks: A conceptual framework’, Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior 6(4), pp. 216–222.Google Scholar
  13. Campbell, A.: 1980, The Sense of Well-Being in America: Recent Patterns and Trends (McGraw-Hill, New York).Google Scholar
  14. Castro, E., F. Pimenta and I. Martins: 1988, ‘Female independence in Portugal: Effects on suicide rates’, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 78(2), pp. 147–155.Google Scholar
  15. Chamberlain, K. and S. Zika: 1988, ‘Religiosity, life meaning and well-being: Some relationships in a sample of women’, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 27(3), pp. 411–420.Google Scholar
  16. Conklin, G. H. and M. E. Simpson: 1987, ‘The family, socio-economic development and suicide: A 52 nation comparative study’, Journal of Comparative Family Studies 18(1), pp. 99–112.Google Scholar
  17. Conwell, Y., M. Rotenberg and E. D. Caine: 1990, ‘Completed suicide at age 50 and over’, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 38(6), pp. 640–644.Google Scholar
  18. Cosand, B. J., L. B. Bourque and J. F. Kraus: 1982, ‘Suicide among adolescents in Sacramento Country, California 1950–1979’, Adolescence 17(68), pp. 917–930.Google Scholar
  19. Cox, H. and A. Hammonds: 1988, ‘Religiosity, aging and life satisfaction’, Journal of Religion and Aging 5(1–2), pp. 1–21.Google Scholar
  20. D'Arcy, C. and C. M. Siddique: 1985, ‘Marital status and psychological well-being: A cross-national comparative analysis’, International Journal of Comparative Sociology 26(3–4), pp. 149–166.Google Scholar
  21. Davis, R. A.: 1981, ‘Female labour force participation, status integration and suicide, 1950–1969’, Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior 11(2), pp. 111–123.Google Scholar
  22. Davis, R.: 1982, ‘Black suicide and social support systems: An overview and some implications for mental health practitioners’, Phylon 43(4), pp. 307–314.Google Scholar
  23. Davis, R.: 1980, ‘Suicide among young blacks: Trends and perspectives’, Phylon 41(3), pp. 223–229.Google Scholar
  24. De Jong, G. F., G. T. Cornwell, S. L. Hanson and C. S. Stokes: 1984, ‘Childless and one child, but not by choice: A note on some long-term consequences for life satisfactions of rural-reared married women’, Rural Sociology 49(3), pp. 441–451.Google Scholar
  25. Dooley, D., R. Catalano, K. Rook and S. Serxner: 1989, ‘Economic stress and suicide: Multilevel analysis Part 1: Aggregate time series analysis of economic stress and suicide’, Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior 19(4), pp. 321–336.Google Scholar
  26. Ellis, J. B. and L. M. Range: 1991, ‘Differences between blacks and whites, women and men in reasons for living’, Journal of Black Studies 21(3), pp. 341–347.Google Scholar
  27. Ellison, C. G., D. A. Gay and T. A. Glass: 1989, ‘Does religious commitment contribute to individual life satisfaction?’ Social Forces 68(1), pp. 100–123.Google Scholar
  28. Evans, G. and N. L. Farberow: 1988, The Encyclopedia of Suicide (Facts on File, New York).Google Scholar
  29. Fine, M. A., D. W. Donnelly and P. Voydanoff: 1986, ‘Adjustment and satisfaction of parents: A comparison of intact, single-parent, and stepparent families’, Journal of Family Issues 7(4), pp. 391–404.Google Scholar
  30. Fuse, T.: 1980, ‘To be or not to be’, Stress 1(3), pp. 18–25.Google Scholar
  31. Garrison, C. Z.: 1989: ‘The study of suicidal behavior in the schools’, Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior 19(1), pp. 120–130.Google Scholar
  32. Gee, E. M. and J. E. Veevers: 1990, ‘Religious involvement and life satisfaction in Canada’, Sociological Analysis 51(4), pp. 387–394.Google Scholar
  33. Gibbs, J. T. and A. M. Hines: 1989, ‘Factors related to sex differences in suicidal behavior among black youths: Implications for intervention and research’, Journal of Adolescent Research 4(2), pp. 152–172.Google Scholar
  34. Gibbs, J. T.: 1988, ‘Conceptual, methodological and sociocultural issues in black youth suicide: Implications for assessment and early intervention’, Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior 18(1), pp. 73–89.Google Scholar
  35. Gilliland, D.: 1990, ‘Research note: Attempted suicide among adolescents’, British Journal of Social Work 20(4), pp. 365–372.Google Scholar
  36. Glatzer, W. and M. Bos: 1992, ‘Review’, R. Veenhoven (ed.) How Harmful is Happiness? and R. Veenhoven (ed.) Did the Crisis Really Hurt?, in Social Indicators Research 27(4), pp. 375–379.Google Scholar
  37. Glenn, N. D. and C. N. Weaver: 1988, ‘The changing relationship of marital status to reported happiness’, Journal of Marriage and the Family 50(2), pp. 317–324.Google Scholar
  38. Glenn, N. D. and S. S. McLahanan: 1982, ‘Children and marital happiness: A further specification of the relationship’, Journal of Marriage and the Family 44(1), pp. 63–72.Google Scholar
  39. Greeley, A. M.: 1991: Faithful Attraction (Tom Doherty Associates, Inc., New York).Google Scholar
  40. Grichting, W. L.: 1983, ‘Domain, scope and degree of happiness’, British Journal of Social Psychology 22(3), pp. 247–260.Google Scholar
  41. Haring, M. J., W. A. Stock and M. A. Okun: 1984, ‘A research synthesis of gender and social class as correlates of subjective well-being’, Human Relations 37, pp. 645–657.Google Scholar
  42. Hochkirchen, B. and W. Jilek: 1985, ‘Psychosocial dimensions of suicide and parasuicide in Amerindians of the Pacific Northwest’, Journal of Operational Psychiatry 16(2), pp. 24–28.Google Scholar
  43. Holden, C.: 1986, ‘Youth suicide: New research focuses on a growing social problem’, Science 233(4766), pp. 839–841.Google Scholar
  44. Inglehart, R. and J.-R. Rabier: 1986, ‘Aspirations adapt to situations — but why are the Belgians so much happier than the French? A cross-cultural analysis of the subjective quality of life’, F. M. Andrews (ed.) Research on the Quality of Life (Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor), pp. 1–56.Google Scholar
  45. Ishii-Kuntz, M. and M. Ihinger-Tallman: 1991, ‘The subjective well-being of parents’, Journal of Family Issues 12(1), pp. 58–68.Google Scholar
  46. Jerosz, M.: 1978, ‘Suicide in Poland’, Polish Sociological Bulletin 2(42), pp. 87–100.Google Scholar
  47. Jedlicka, D., Y. Shin and E. S. Lee: 1977, ‘Suicide among blacks’, Phylon 38(4), pp. 448–455.Google Scholar
  48. Kammann, R., M. Farry and P. Herbison: 1984, ‘The analysis and measurement of happiness as a sense of well-being’, Social Indicators Research 15(2), pp. 91–115.Google Scholar
  49. Kandel, D. B., V. H. Raveis, M. Davies: 1991, ‘Suicidal ideation in adolescence: Depression, substance use and other risk factors’, Journal of Youth and Adolescence 20(2), pp. 289–309.Google Scholar
  50. Keicolt, K. J. and A. C. Acock: 1990, ‘Childhood family structure and adult psychological well-being of black Americans’, Sociological Spectrum 10(2), pp. 169–186.Google Scholar
  51. Kirkham, M. A., S. P. Schinke, R. F. Schilling, Jr., N. J. Meltzer and K. L. Norelius: 1986, ‘Cognitive-behavioral skills, social supports, and child abuse potential among mothers of handicapped children’, Journal of Family Violence 1(3), pp. 235–245.Google Scholar
  52. Klebba, A. J.: 1970, ‘Mortality from selected causes by marital status’, Vital and Health Statistics Series 20(8).Google Scholar
  53. Koenig, H. G., I. C. Siegler and L. K. George: 1989, ‘Religious and non-religious coping: Impact on adaptation in later life’, Journal of Religion and Aging 5(4), pp. 73–94.Google Scholar
  54. Kotila, L. and J. Lonnqvist: 1988, ‘Adolescent suicide attempts: Sex differences predicting suicide’, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 77(3), pp. 264–270.Google Scholar
  55. Kotila, L.: 1989, ‘Age-specific characteristics of attempted suicide in adolescents’, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 79(5), pp. 436–443.Google Scholar
  56. Kraybill, D. B., J. A. Hostetler and D. G. Shaw: 1986, ‘Suicide patterns in a religious subculture: The Old Order Amish’, International Journal of Moral and Social Studies 1(3), pp. 249–263.Google Scholar
  57. Kreitman, N.: 1988, ‘Suicide, age and marital status’, Psychological Medicine 18, pp. 121–128.Google Scholar
  58. Kushner, H. I.: 1985, ‘Women and suicide in historical perspective’, Signs 10(3), pp. 537–552.Google Scholar
  59. Lance, C. E., G. J. Lautenschlager, C. E. Sloan and P. E. Varca: 1989, ‘A comparison between bottom-up, top-down, and bidirectional models of relationships between global and life facet satisfaction’, Journal of Personality 57(3), pp. 601–624.Google Scholar
  60. Lee, G. R., K. Seccombe and C. L. Shehan: 1991, ‘Marital status and personal happiness: An analysis of trend data’, Journal of Marriage and the Family 53, pp. 839–844.Google Scholar
  61. Lester, D. and F. Moksony: 1989, ‘Ecological correlates of suicide in the United States and Hungary’, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 79(5), pp. 498–499.Google Scholar
  62. Lester, D.: 1988, ‘Youth suicide: A cross-cultural perspective’, Adolescence 23(92), pp. 955–958.Google Scholar
  63. Lupri, E. and J. Frideres: 1981, ‘The quality of marriage and the passage of time: Marital satisfaction over the family life cycle’, Canadian Journal of Sociology 6(3), pp. 283–305.Google Scholar
  64. Maris, R.: 1985, ‘The adolescent suicide problem’, Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior 15(2), pp. 91–109.Google Scholar
  65. Mastekaasa, A.: 1993, ‘Marital status and subjective well-being: A changing relationship’, Social Indicators Research 29, pp. 249–276.Google Scholar
  66. McGuire, D.: 1983, ‘Teenage suicide: A search for sense’, Acta Sociologica 27(3), pp. 211–217.Google Scholar
  67. McGuire, D.: 1982, ‘The problem of children's suicides ages 5–14’, International Journal of Offender Therapy Comparative Criminology 26(1), pp. 10–17.Google Scholar
  68. McIntosh, J. L., R. W. Hubbard and J. F. Santos: 1981, ‘Suicide among the elderly: A review of issues with case studies’, Journal of Gerontological Social Work 4(1), pp. 63–74.Google Scholar
  69. McIntosh, J. L.: 1991, ‘Middle-age suicide: A literature review and epidemiological study’, Death Studies 15(1), pp. 21–37.Google Scholar
  70. McLanahan, S. S. and J. Adams: 1987, ‘Parenthood and psychological well-being’, Annual Review of Sociology 13, pp. 237–257.Google Scholar
  71. Mercy, J. A., D. D. Tolsma, J. C. Smith and J. M. Conn: 1984, ‘Patterns of youth suicide in the United States’, Educational Horizons 62(4), pp. 124–127.Google Scholar
  72. Michalos, A. C.: 1991, Global Report on Student Well-Being, Vol. 1: Life Satisfaction and Happiness (Springer-Verlag, New York).Google Scholar
  73. Michalos, A. C.: 1991a, Global Report on Student Well-Being, Vol. 2: Family, Friends, Living Partner and Self-Esteem (Springer-Verlag, New York).Google Scholar
  74. Michalos, A. C.: 1993, Global Report on Student Well-Being, Vol. 3: Employment, Finances, Housing and Transportation (Springer-Verlag, New York).Google Scholar
  75. Michalos, A. C.: 1993a, Global Report on Student Well-Being, Vol. 4: Religion, Education, Recreation and Health (Springer-Verlag, New York).Google Scholar
  76. Molcar, C. C. and D. W. Stuempfig: 1988, ‘Effects of world view on purpose in life’, Journal of Psychology 122(4), pp. 365–371.Google Scholar
  77. Nelson, F. L., N. I. Farberow and R. E. Litman: 1988, ‘Youth suicide in California: A comparative study of perceived causes and interventions’, Community Mental Health Journal 2(1), pp. 31–42.Google Scholar
  78. Newman, J. F., K. R. Whittemore and H. G. Newman: 1973, ‘Women in the labor force and suicide’, Social Problems 21(2), pp. 220–230.Google Scholar
  79. Okun, M. A. and W. A. Stock: 1987, ‘Correlates and components of subjective well-being among the elderly’, Journal of Applied Gerontology 6, pp. 95–112.Google Scholar
  80. Ornstein, M. D.: 1983, ‘The impact of marital status, age, and employment on suicide in British Columbia’, Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 20(1), pp. 96–100.Google Scholar
  81. Paerregaard, G.: 1980, ‘Suicide in Denmark: A statistical review for the past 150 years’, Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior 10(3), pp. 150–156.Google Scholar
  82. Paulson, M. J., D. Stone and R. Sposto: 1978, ‘Suicide potential and behavior in children ages 4–12’, Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior 8(4), pp. 225–242.Google Scholar
  83. Peck, D. L. and L. K. Bharadwaj: 1980, ‘Personal stress and fatalism as factors of college suicide’, Social Science 55(1), pp. 19–24.Google Scholar
  84. Peck, D. L.: 1989, ‘Teenage suicide expressions: Echos from the past’, International Quarterly of Community Health Education 1989–1900 10(1), pp. 53–64.Google Scholar
  85. Peck, D. L.: 1983, ‘The last moments of life: Learning to cope’, Deviant Behavior 4(3–4), pp. 313–332.Google Scholar
  86. Peck, M.: 1982, ‘Youth suicide’, Death Education 6(1), pp. 29–47.Google Scholar
  87. Pescosolido, B. A.: 1990, ‘The social context of religious integration and suicide: Pursuing the network explanation’, Sociological Quarterly 31(3), pp. 337–357.Google Scholar
  88. Poloma, M. M. and B. F. Pendleton: 1990, ‘Religious domains and general well-being’, Social Indicators Research 22(3), pp. 255–276.Google Scholar
  89. Polonko, K. A., J. Scanzoni and J. D. Teachman: 1982, ‘Childlessness and marital satisfaction: a further reassessment’, Journal of Family Issues 3, pp. 545–573.Google Scholar
  90. Rhyne, D.: 1984, Marital Satisfaction in Canada: A Descriptive Overview (York University, Institute for Behavioural Research, Toronto).Google Scholar
  91. Rich, C. L., M. Sherman and R. C. Fowler: 1990, ‘San Diego suicide study: The adolescents’, Adolescence 25(100), pp. 855–865.Google Scholar
  92. Rico, V. and L. Mynko: 1973, ‘Suicide and marital status: A changing relationship?’ Journal of Marriage and the Family 47(4), pp. 931–937.Google Scholar
  93. Sabatelli, R. M. and E. F. Cecil-Pigo: 1985, ‘Relational interdependence and commitment in marriage’, Journal of Marriage and the Family 47(4), pp. 931–937.Google Scholar
  94. Sabatelli, R. M., R. L. Meth and S. M. Gavazzi: 1988, ‘Factors mediating the adjustment of involuntary childlessness’, Family Relations 37(3), pp. 338–343.Google Scholar
  95. Schumm, W. R., A. P. Jurich and S. R. Bollman: 1985, ‘His and her marriages revisited’, Journal of Family Issues 6, pp. 21–27.Google Scholar
  96. Seiden, R. H.: 1981, ‘Mellowing with age’, International Journal of Aging and Human Development 13, pp. 265–284.Google Scholar
  97. Shaw, D. G.: 1986, ‘Suicide and social integration in Lancaster County’, Sociological Viewpoints 2(1), pp. 15–30.Google Scholar
  98. Simpson, M. E. and G. H. Conklin: 1989, ‘Socioeconomic development, suicide and religion: A test of Durkheim's theory of religion and suicide’, Social Forces 67(4), pp. 945–964.Google Scholar
  99. Smith, J. C., J. A. Mercy and J. M. Conn: 1988, ‘Marital status and the risk of suicide’, American Journal of Public Health 78, pp. 78–80.Google Scholar
  100. Stack, S.: 1980, ‘The effects of marital dissolution on suicide’, Journal of Marriage and the Family 42(1), pp. 83–92.Google Scholar
  101. Stack, S.: 1981a, ‘Comparative analysis of immigration and suicide’, Psychological Reports 49(2), pp. 509–510.Google Scholar
  102. Stack, S.: 1981b, ‘Suicide and religion: A comparative analysis’, Sociological Focus 14(3), pp. 207–220.Google Scholar
  103. Stack, S.: 1982, ‘Aging and suicide: A cross-national study’, International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 19(3–4), pp. 125–138.Google Scholar
  104. Stack, S.: 1983a, ‘The effect of religious commitment in suicide: A cross-national analysis’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior 24(4), pp. 326–374.Google Scholar
  105. Stack, S.: 1983b, ‘The effect of the decline in institutionalized religion on suicide, 1954–1978’, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 22, pp. 239–252.Google Scholar
  106. Stack, S.: 1989, ‘The impact of divorce on suicide in Norway, 1951–1980’, Journal of Marriage and the Family 51(1), pp. 229–238.Google Scholar
  107. Stack, S.: 1990, ‘The effect of divorce on suicide in Denmark, 1951–1980’, Sociological Quarterly 31(3), pp. 359–370.Google Scholar
  108. Stock, W. A., M. A. Okun and M. Benin: 1986, ‘The structure of subjective well-being among the elderly’, Psychology and Aging 1, pp. 91–102.Google Scholar
  109. Stock, W. A., M. A. Okun, M. J. Haring and R. A. Witter: 1983, ‘Age differences in subjective well-being: A meta-analysis’, Evaluation Studies Review Annual 8, pp. 279–302.Google Scholar
  110. Stock, W. A., M. A. Okun, M. J. Haring and R. A. Witter: 1985, ‘Race and subjective well-being in adulthood’, Human Development 28, pp. 192–197.Google Scholar
  111. Stafford, M. C. and J. P. Gibbs: 1988, ‘Change in the relation between marital integration and suicide rates’, Social Forces 66(4), pp. 1060–1079.Google Scholar
  112. Starr, J. M.: 1986, ‘American youth in the 1980's’, Youth and Society 17(4), pp. 323–345.Google Scholar
  113. Stefansson, C. G.: 1991, ‘Long-term unemployment and mortality in Sweden, 1980–1986’, Social Science and Medicine 32(4), pp. 419–423.Google Scholar
  114. Steffensmeir, R. H.: 1984, ‘Suicide and the contemporary woman: Are male and female suicide rates converging?’ Sex-Roles 10(7–8), pp. 613–631.Google Scholar
  115. Stones, M. J. and A. Kozma: 1985, ‘Structural relationships among happiness scales: A second order factorial study’, Social Indicators Research 17(1), pp. 19–28.Google Scholar
  116. Taylor, R. L.: 1990, ‘Black youth: The endangered generation’, Youth and Society 22(1), pp. 4–11.Google Scholar
  117. Templer, D. and G. Cappelletty: 1986, ‘Suicide in the elderly: Assessment and intervention’, Clinical Gerontologist 5(3–4), pp. 475–487.Google Scholar
  118. Tepperman, L. and H. Laasen: 1990, ‘The future of happiness’, Futures 22(10), pp. 1059–1070.Google Scholar
  119. Tepperman, L.: 1994, Choices and Chances: Sociology for Everyday Life. Second edition. Toronto: Harcourt Brace and Company, Canada.Google Scholar
  120. Tower, M.: 1989, ‘A suicide epidemic in an American Indian community’, American Indian and Alaska Native Health Research 3(1), pp. 34–44.Google Scholar
  121. Trovato, F.: 1987, ‘A longitudinal analysis of divorce and suicide in Canada’, Journal of Marriage and the Family 49(1), pp. 193–203.Google Scholar
  122. Trovato, F.: 1986a, ‘Suicide and ethnic factors in Canada’, International Journal of Social Psychiatry 32(3), pp. 55–64.Google Scholar
  123. Trovato, F.: 1986b, ‘The relationship between marital dissolution and suicide: The Canadian case’, Journal of Marriage and the Family 48(2), pp. 341–348.Google Scholar
  124. Trovato, F. and G. K. Jarvis: 1986, ‘Immigrant suicide in Canada: 1971 and 1981’, Social Forces 65(2), pp. 433–457.Google Scholar
  125. Veenhoven, R.: 1984, Conditions of Happiness (D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht).Google Scholar
  126. Veenhoven, R.: 1983, ‘The growing impact of marriage’, Social Indicators Research 12, pp. 49–63.Google Scholar
  127. Veevers, J. E.: 1973, ‘Parenthood and suicide: An examination of a neglected variable’, Social Science and Medicine 7(2), pp. 135–144.Google Scholar
  128. Webster-Stratton, C.: 1989, ‘The relationship of marital support, conflict, and divorce to parent perceptions, behaviors, and childhood conduct problems’, Journal of Marriage and the Family 51(2), pp. 417–430.Google Scholar
  129. Weingarten, H. and F. B. Bryant: 1987, ‘Marital status and the meaning of subjective well-being: A structural analysis’, Journal of Marriage and the Family 49(4), pp. 883–892.Google Scholar
  130. Wenz, F. V.: 1979, ‘Sociological correlates of alienation among adolescent suicide attempts’, Adolescents 14(53), pp. 19–30.Google Scholar
  131. Woznicka, J. G. and J. R. Shapira: 1990, ‘An analysis of adolescent suicide attempts: The expendable child’, Journal of Pediatric Psychology 15(6), pp. 789–796.Google Scholar
  132. Yang, B.: 1992, ‘The economy and suicide: A time-series study of the USA’, American Journal of Economics and Sociology 51(1), pp. 87–99.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jana Weerasinghe
    • 1
  • Lorne Tepperman
    • 1
  1. 1.University of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations