Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The use of analytical methods and tools in international negotiations: A practitioner's perspective

  • 61 Accesses


This paper presents a practitioner's perspective on the use of systematic analytical techniques to improve the practice of international negotiations, primarily in a multilateral context. A generic model of the negotiation process is presented and the utility of various analytical methodologies is evaluated against the component functions described by the model. Overall, analytical tools for negotiation support are viewed as most useful in the prenegotiation phase. Conclusions are based primarily on practical experience, not on theories of negotiation.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Anderson, Ewan: 1991, ‘A cooperation model for the Tigris-Euphrates Basin: The basic elements’. Unpublished paper, University of Durham, U.K.

  2. Druckman, Daniel and Hopmann, P. Terrence: 1991, ‘Content analysis’, in V. Kremenyuk (Ed.),International Negotiation, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  3. Fraser, Niall M.: 1991, ‘Conflict analysis support for international negotiations’. Presented at the Workshop on Systems Analysis Techniques for International Negotiations, IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.

  4. Jervis, Robert: 1976,Perception and Misperception in International Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  5. Sprout, H. and Sprout, M.: 1965,Ecological Perspective of Human Affairs, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  6. Ulvila, Jacob W. and Snider, Warren D.: 1980, ‘Negotiation of international oil tanker standards: An application of multiattribute value theory’,Operations Research 28, 81–95.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hafner, G. The use of analytical methods and tools in international negotiations: A practitioner's perspective. Theor Decis 34, 329–343 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01075196

Download citation


  • Decision support systems
  • practitioner perspective
  • negotiation models