Advertisement

Population Research and Policy Review

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 53–70 | Cite as

Gender inequality in education and employment in the scheduled castes and tribes of India

  • Dana Dunn
Gender Issues

Abstract

The complex stratification systems in India give rise to a multiplicity of social categories which often obscure the relative status of women and men within the more disadvantaged segments of the population. The focus of this study is on the situation of women in scheduled castes and tribes — groups which are referred to as ‘weaker sections of people’ and granted special safeguards and concessions under the Indian constitution. Women in these under-privileged groups are doubly disadvantaged: their minority group status interacts with India's patriarchal culture to produce deplorable living conditions. Drawing from both ethnographic and statistical sources, the paper presents a descriptive profile of scheduled caste and tribe women's status in Indian society. Using Indian Census data, the study documents extreme degrees of gender inequality among the scheduled groups. Findings indicate that relative to men, women in these groups have far more limited access to both educational and employment resources. This research also suggests that socioeconomic development serves to reduce the disadvantage of scheduled group women relative to men. Among the scheduled groups considered to be more developed according to standard indicators, findings indicate less gender inequality in education and employment.

Key words

Education Employment India 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adelman I. & C.T. Morris (1973).Economic Growth and Social Equity in Developing Countries. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Almquist, E.M. (1987), Labor market gender inequality in minority groups,Gender and Society 1 (4): 400–413.Google Scholar
  3. Ambedwadikar, R.M. (1986). Role of development schemes for the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes: Do they work? In Joshi (ed.),Untouchables: Voices of the Dalit Liberation Movement, pp. 49–59, London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  4. Agrawal, A.N., H.O. Verma & R.C. Gupta (1987).India Economic Information Yearbook. New Delhi: National Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bagchi, D. (1982). Female roles in agricultural modernization: An Indian case-study,Women in International Development Working Paper, No. 10, Michigan State University.Google Scholar
  6. Bhai, P.N. (1986).Harijan Women in Independent India. New Delhi: B.R. Publishing.Google Scholar
  7. Bhatty, Z. (1984). Unequal gains of development for women. In: K.M. Manohar (ed.),Women's Status and Development in India, Warangal: Society for Women's Studies and Development, pp. 14–23.Google Scholar
  8. Blumberg, R.L. (1984). A general theory of gender stratification. In: R. Collins,Sociological Theory, San Francisco: Jossey Bass, pp. 252–270.Google Scholar
  9. Bornschier, V. & T. Ballmer-Cao (1980). Income inequality: A cross-national study of the relationship between MNC penetration, dimensions of the lower structure and income distribution,American Sociological Review 44: (3): 487–506.Google Scholar
  10. Bornschier, V. & C. Chase-Dunn (1980). Cross-national evidence of the effects of foreign investment and aid on economic growth and inequality: A survey of findings and a reanalysis,American Journal of Sociology 84 (3): 651–683.Google Scholar
  11. Bose, A., D. Gupta & G. Raychaudhuri (1977).Population Statistics in India. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.Google Scholar
  12. Burman, B.J. (1977). Census of India: Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. In: A. Bose, D. Gupta and G. Raychaudhuri (eds.),Population Statistics in India. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, pp. 28–37.Google Scholar
  13. Buvinic, M. & C. Yudelman (1989).Women, Poverty and Progress in the Third World. New York: Foreign Policy Association.Google Scholar
  14. CMIE, Center for Monitoring Indian Economy (1982).Basic Statistics Relating to the Indian Economy, Vol., All India.Google Scholar
  15. Census of India (1981).Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Series 9. New Delhi: Government of India.Google Scholar
  16. Chafetz, J.S. (1984).Sex and Advantage: A Comparative, Macro-structural Theory of Sex Stratification. Totowa, NJ: Rowmand and Allenheld.Google Scholar
  17. Chattopadhyay, K.C 1978).Tribalism in India. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.Google Scholar
  18. Chilicote, R.H. & D. Johnson (1983).Theories and Development: Modes of Production of Production or Dependency. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  19. Das, B. (1982). Untouchability, scheduled castes and nation building,Social Action 32: 269–282.Google Scholar
  20. Debi, B. (1978). Tribal women: A study of modern conditions and future prospects. In: Ray et al. (eds.),Role and Status of Women in India. Calcutta: Firma KLM.Google Scholar
  21. Devi, A.K. (1989). Women in agriculture and rural areas — India,Women in International Development Working Paper, No. 183, Michigan State University.Google Scholar
  22. D'Souza, V. (1975). Family status and male work participation. In: V. D'Souza (ed.),Women in Contemporary India. India, Manohar, pp. 129–141.Google Scholar
  23. Dube, S.C. (1977).Tribal Heritage of India. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.Google Scholar
  24. Duley, M.I. (1986). Women in India. In: M. Duley & M. Edward (eds.),The Cross-cultural Study of Women. New York: City University of New York, pp. 127–236.Google Scholar
  25. EIS, Economic Intelligence Service (1987).Basic Statistics Relating to the Indian Economy. New Delhi: Center for Monitoring the Indian Economy.Google Scholar
  26. Evans, P.B. & M. Timberlake (1980). Dependence, inequality and the growth of the tertiary: A comparative analysis of less-developed countries,American Sociological Review 45 (4): 531–552.Google Scholar
  27. Everett J.M. (1979).Women and Social Change in India. New York: St Martins Press.Google Scholar
  28. Gallanter, M. (1984).Competing Inequalities: Law and the Backward Classes in India. California: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  29. Ghandially, R. (1988). Introduction. In: R. Ghandially (ed.),Women in Indian Society, New Delhi: Sage Publication, pp. 13–19.Google Scholar
  30. Ghandially, R. & P. Kumar (1988). Bride burning: The psycho-social dynamics of dowry deaths. In: R. Ghandially (ed.),Women in Indian Society. pp. 167–177.Google Scholar
  31. Ghurye, G.S. (1980).The Scheduled Tribes of India. New Brunswick: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  32. Gulati, L. (1984). Agricultural laborers. In: T. Lebra, T. Paulson and J. Everett (eds.),Women and work in India: Continuity and Change. New Delhi: Promilla and Company Publishers, pp. 63–77.Google Scholar
  33. Gupta, A.R. (1976).Women in Hindu Society. New Delhi: Jyotana Prakashan.Google Scholar
  34. Gupta, A.R. (1987).India: A Statistical Outline, 8th ed. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishers.Google Scholar
  35. Jain, D. (1984). India: A condition across caste and class. In: Morgan (ed.),Sisterhood is Global, New York: Anchor Books, pp. 305–309.Google Scholar
  36. Karlekar, M. (1982). Some perspectives on the employment of scheduled caste women,Social Action 32: 292–302.Google Scholar
  37. Khan, M.A. & N. Ayesha (1982)Status of Women in Rural India. New Delhi: Uppal Publishing House.Google Scholar
  38. Kumar, K. (1988). Education: Safer options. In: Bouton and Oldenburg (eds.),India Briefing: 1988, pp. 111–128.Google Scholar
  39. Leahy, M.E. (1986).Development Strategies and the Status of Women. Boulder, CO: Lynn Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  40. Liddle, J. & R. Joshi (1986).Daughters of Independence: Gender. Caste, and Class in India. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Mahatme, A.W. (1985). The census of India,Indian Journal of Social Work 46: 197–215.Google Scholar
  42. Mandelbaum, D. 1970.Society in India, Vols. 1 & 2. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  43. Manohar, L.M. (1983).Socio-economic Status of Indian Women. New Delhi: Seema Publications.Google Scholar
  44. Mies, M. (1986).Indian Women in Subsistence and Agricultural Labour. Geneva: International Labour Office.Google Scholar
  45. Miller, B. (1981).The Endangered Sex. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Mitra, A. (1979).The Status of Women, Literacy and Employment. New Delhi: Indian Council of Social Science Research.Google Scholar
  47. Morgan, R. (1984).Sisterhood is Global. Garden City: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  48. Mukerji, S. (1982). Under-enumeration in Indian censuses,Economic and Political Weekly 11 (13–20): 1870–1875.Google Scholar
  49. Mukhopadhyay, M. (1984).Silver Shackles: Women and Development in India. Oxford: Oxfam.Google Scholar
  50. Natarajen, K.S. & K.K. Unni (1983). Under-enumeration in Indian censuses,Economic and Political Weekly 18: 314–316.Google Scholar
  51. O'Kelley, C. & L. Carney (1986).Women and Men in Society. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  52. Papanek, H. (1990). To each less than she needs, from each more than she can do. In: Tinker (ed.),Persistent Inequalities, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 162–181.Google Scholar
  53. Patel, V. (1988). Emergence and proliferation of autonomous women's groups in India: 1974–1984. In: Ghandially (ed.),Women in Indian Society, New Delhi: Sage Publications, pp. 249–256.Google Scholar
  54. Poston, D.L. Jr., E. Almquist & Shu (1987). Gender inequalities among the minority populations of China.Texas Population Research Center Paper, Series 9. Austin: University of Texas.Google Scholar
  55. Reddy, D.N. (1984). Women in economic development: The scheduled caste female agricultural labourers in India: A target group approach. In: Manohare (ed.),Women's Status and Development in India. Warangal: Society for Women's Studies and Development, pp. 40–51.Google Scholar
  56. Rubinson, R. (1976). The world economy and the distribution of income within states: A cross-national study,American Sociological Review 41 (4): 638–659.Google Scholar
  57. Sethi, R.M. (1982). Changing patterns of female labour in agriculture: The case of Punjab,Social Action 34: 354–367.Google Scholar
  58. Singh, I.P. (1988).Women's Oppression: Men Responsible. Delhi: Renaissance Publishing.Google Scholar
  59. Singh, K.P., (1979).Status of Women and Population Growth in India. India: Munshiram Manoharial Publishers.Google Scholar
  60. Sinha, B. (1983).society in Tribal India. Washington, DC: World Priorities.Google Scholar
  61. Sivard, R. (1985).Women: A World Survey. Washington, DC: World Priorities.Google Scholar
  62. Souza, A. (1982). Introduction,Social Action 32: 245–246.Google Scholar
  63. Standing, G. (1982).Labour Force Participation and Development. Geneva: International Labour Office.Google Scholar
  64. Sundar, P. (1981). Characteristics of female employment: Implications of research and policy,Economic and Political Weekly 14: 864–873.Google Scholar
  65. Todaro, M. P. (1989).Economic Development in the Third world. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  66. United Nations Development Program (1990).Human development, Report 1990. New York: Oxford.Google Scholar
  67. Usha Rao, N.J. (1983).Women in a Developing Society. New Delhi: Ashish.Google Scholar
  68. Vander Zanden, T.W. (1983).American Minority Relations. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  69. Verma, D.N. & R.S. Dixit (1988). Place of women in occupational structure of scheduled caste population in UP. In: D. Maurya (ed.),Women in India, India: Chugh Publications, pp. 181–188.Google Scholar
  70. Visaria, P. & L. Visaria (1981).India's Populations: Second and Growing. Washington DC: Population Reference Bureau.Google Scholar
  71. The World Bank (1988).World Development, Report 1988. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Ward, K. (1984).Women in the World System: Its Impact on Status and Fertility. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  73. Williams, R.M. (1964).Strangers Next Door. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dana Dunn
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of Texas at ArlingtonArlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations