Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 51, Issue 4, pp 281–298

A monogenetic, Surtla-type, Surtseyan volcano from the Eocene-Oligocene Waiareka-Deborah volcanics, Otago, New Zealand: A model

  • R. A. F. Cas
  • C. A. Landis
  • R. E. Fordyce
Article

Abstract

The relics of a small, monogenetic, continental-shelf, Surtseyan volcano are preserved on the North Otago coast, South Island, New Zealand, in the late Eocene-early Oligocene Waiareka-Deborah volcanics. The succession consists of two parts, i. e. a lower interval of bedded lapilli tuffs and lapillistones, representing the eruptive, aggradational-cone-building phase, and an upper epiclastic sequence, representing the post-eruptive degradational phase. All of the preserved succession appears to have been deposited below storm wave base. The lapilli tuffs and lappillistones are subaqueous fall deposits, modified contemporaneously by downslope grain flow and turbidity current redeposition, and perhaps by local reworking caused by turbulent thermal eddies. The absence of major discordances in the lapilli tuffs suggests that the active eruptive period was very short-lived, perhaps lasting only a few days. The epiclastic succession consists of redeposited volcanic, skeletal, lime mud and glauconitic detritus, transported by debris flows and other mass flows. The initial epiclastic unit, a debris flow, appears to represent the sector collapse of a significant part of the cone. The appearance of fossils and rounded clasts low in the epiclastic succession coincides with stabilisation of the top of the submarine volcanic edifice, development of a wave-planed top, and its colonisation by a diverse fauna. Periodic storm activity swept material off the platform, redepositing it as marginal talus ramps. Surtla, a wholly submarine satellite volcanic centre of the 1963–1967 eruptive activity of Surtsey, is an excellent modern analogue for both the eruptive and post-eruptive phases of the Bridge Point-Aorere Point volcanic centre. By analogy with Surtla, the 120 metres of lapilli tuffs and lapillistones exposed on Bridge Point and Aorere Point accumulated in only several days. The 25 metres of reworked, glauconitic and fossiliferous volcaniclastics, represent thousands of years based on the time required for glauconite to form.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Carter RM (1985) The mid-Oligocene Marshall Paraconformity, New Zealand. Coincidence with global eustatic sea-level fall or rise? J Geol 93:359–371Google Scholar
  2. Cas RAF, Landis CA (1987) A debris flow with multiple plug flow channels and accretion deposits. Sedimentology 34:901–910Google Scholar
  3. Cas RAF, Wright JV (1987) Volcanic successions: modern and ancient. A geological approach to processes, products and successions. Allen & Unwin, London, pp 528Google Scholar
  4. Coombs DS, Cas RAF, Kawachi Y, Landis CA, McDonough WF, Reay A (1986) Cenozoic volcanism in north, east and central Otago. In: Smith IEM (ed) Cenozoic volcanism in New Zealand. R Soc New Zealand Bull 23:278–312Google Scholar
  5. Fisher RV (1966) Rocks composed of volcanic fragments and their classification. Earth Sci Rev 1:287–298Google Scholar
  6. Fisher RV, Schmincke H-U (1984) Pyroclastic rocks. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 472Google Scholar
  7. Fisher RV, Waters AC (1970) Base surge bedforms in maar volcanoes. Am J Sci 268:157–180Google Scholar
  8. Fleming CA (1962) New Zealand biogeography: a palaeontologist's approach. Tuatara 10:53–108Google Scholar
  9. Fridriksson S (1975) Surtsey. Evolution of life on a volcanic island. Butterworths, London, pp 198Google Scholar
  10. Gage M (1957) The geology of the Waitakei subdivision. N Z Geol Surv Bull 55:1–135Google Scholar
  11. Hampton MA (1972) The role of subaqueous debris flow in generating turbidity currents. J Sediment Petrol 42:775–793Google Scholar
  12. Heiken GH (1972) Morphology and petrology of volcanic ashes. Geol Soc Am Bull 83:1961–1988Google Scholar
  13. Heiken GH (1974) An atlas of volcanic ash. Smithson Contrib Eart Sci 12:1–101Google Scholar
  14. Heiken GH, Wohletz KH (1985) Volcanic ash. Univ Calif Press, Berkeley, pp 1–246Google Scholar
  15. Houghton BF, Wilson CJN (1989) A vesicularity index for pyroclastic deposits. Bull Volcanol (in press)Google Scholar
  16. Jakobsson SP (1972) On the consolidation and palagonitization of the tephra of the Surtsey volcanic island, Iceland. Surtsey Res Progr Rep 6:121–128Google Scholar
  17. Jakobsson SP (1978) Environmental factors controlling the palagonitization of the Surtsey tephra, Iceland. Bull Geol Soc Den (Spec Issue) 27:91–105Google Scholar
  18. Jakobsson SP (1982) Dredge hauls from Vestmannaey-Jagrunn, Iceland. Surtsey Res Progr Rep 9:142–148Google Scholar
  19. Jakobsson SP, Moore JG (1980) Unique hole shows how volcano grew. Geotimes April 1980:14–16Google Scholar
  20. Jakobsson SP, Moore JG (1982) The Surtsey research drilling project of 1979. Surtsey Res Progr Rep 9:76–93Google Scholar
  21. Johnson AM (1970) Physical processes in geology. Freeman Cooper, San Francisco, pp 1–577Google Scholar
  22. Kokelaar BP (1983) The mechanism of surtseyan eruption. J Geol Soc Lond 140:939–944Google Scholar
  23. Kokelaar BP (1986) Magma-water interactions in subaqueous and emergent basaltic volcanism. Bull Volcanol 48:275–289Google Scholar
  24. Kokelaar BP, Durant GP (1983) The submarine eruption and erosion of Surtla (Surtsey), Iceland. J Volc Geotherm Res 19:239–246Google Scholar
  25. Lorenz V (1974) Studies of Surtsey tephra deposits. Surtsey Res Progr Rep 7:72–79Google Scholar
  26. Loutit TS, Kennett JP (1981) New Zealand and Australian Cenozoic sedimentary cycles and global sea-level changes. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 65:1586–1601Google Scholar
  27. Lowe DR (1982) Sediment gravity flows: Il depositional models with special reference to the deposits of high density turbidity currents. J Sediment Petrol 50:1111–1116Google Scholar
  28. McBirney AR (1963) Factors governing the nature of submarine volcanism. Bull Volcanol 26:455–469Google Scholar
  29. Moore JG (1967) Base surge in recent volcanic eruptions. Bull Volcanol 30:337–363Google Scholar
  30. Norrman JO (1970) Trends in postvolcanic development of Surtsey Island. Progress report on geomorphological activities in 1968. Surtsey Res Progr Rep 5:95–112Google Scholar
  31. Odin GS, Matter A (1981) De glauconiarum origine. Sedimentology 28:611–641Google Scholar
  32. Passaglia E, Galli E, Gottardi G, Vezzalini G (1985) An anomalous phillipsite from Saint Jean le Centenaire, Ardeche. Bull Mineral 108:719–724Google Scholar
  33. Postma G (1986) Classification for sediment gravity flow deposits based on flow conditions during sedimentation. Geology 14:291–294Google Scholar
  34. Postma G, Roep JB, Ruegg GHJ (1983) Sandy gravelly mass-flow deposits in an ice-marginal lake (Saalian, Leuvenmusche, Beek Valley, Veluwe, The Netherlands) with emphasis on plug-flow deposits. Sediment Geol 34:59–82Google Scholar
  35. Self S, Sparks RSJ, Booth B, Walker GPL (1974) The 1973 Heimaey Strombolian scoria deposit, Iceland. Geol Mag 111:539–548Google Scholar
  36. Sheridan M, Wohletz KH (1981) Hydrovolcanic explosions: the systematics of water-pyroclast equilibration. Science 212:1387–1389Google Scholar
  37. Siebert L (1984) Large volcanic debris avalanches: characteristics of source areas, deposits and associated eruptions. J Volc Geotherm Res 22:163–197Google Scholar
  38. Stevens GR, Suggate RP (1978) Atlas of paleogeographic maps. In: Suggate RP, Stevens GR, TePunga MT (eds) The geology of New Zealand. NZ Govt Printer, Wellington, pp 727–743Google Scholar
  39. Thorarinsson S (1967) Surtsey. The new island in the North Atlantic. The Viking Press, New York, pp 1–47 + 54 platesGoogle Scholar
  40. Thorarinsson S, Einarsson Th, Sigvaldason GE, Elisson G (1964) The submarine eruption off the Westmann Islands 1963–64. Bull Volcanol 27:1–11Google Scholar
  41. Vail PR, Hardenbohl J (1979) Sea-level change during the Tertiary. Oceanus 22:71–79Google Scholar
  42. Verwoerd WJ, Chevallier L (1987) Contrasting types of surtseyan tuff cones on Marion and Prince Edward Islands, southwest Indian Ocean. Bull Volcanol 49:399–417Google Scholar
  43. Walker GPL (1973) Explosive volcanic eruptions — a new classification scheme. Geol Rundsch 62:431–446Google Scholar
  44. Walker GPL, Croasdale R (1972) Characteristics of some basaltic pyroclastics. Bull Volcanol 35:303–317Google Scholar
  45. Wohletz KH (1983) Mechanisms of hydrovolcanic pyroclast formation: grainsize, scanning electron microscopy, and experimental studies. J Volc Geotherm Res 17:31–63Google Scholar
  46. Wilson L, Sparks RSJ, Walker GPL (1980) Explosive volcanic eruptions — IV. The control of magma properties and conduit geometry on eruption column behaviour. Geophys J R Astr Soc 63:117–148Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. F. Cas
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. A. Landis
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. E. Fordyce
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia
  2. 2.Department of GeologyUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations