Advertisement

Behavior Genetics

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 299–319 | Cite as

The Maudsley Reactive and Nonreactive strains of rats: A survey

  • P. L. Broadhurst
Article

Abstract

Experiments with two strains of rats, the Maudsley Reactive and Nonreactive, developed in London, England, and which were performed during 1964–1974 by a variety of investigators are summarized in a table. It is concluded that the results support the strains' standing as exemplars of differences in emotional reactivity.

Key Words

rat selective breeding emotionality Maudsley strains 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Archer, J. (1973). Tests for emotionality in rats and mice: A review.Anim. Behav. 21:205–235.Google Scholar
  2. Bailey, B. F. S., and Heald, P. J. (1961). The separation of the cytoplasmic proteins of brain by electrophoresis in a starch gel medium.J. Neurochem. 6:342–349.Google Scholar
  3. Benešová, O., and Beneš, V. (1968). The relation between the type of higher nervous activity, some biochemical parameters and the reactivity to drugs.Act. Nerv. Super. 10:223–231.Google Scholar
  4. Bernet, F. (1974). Personal communication.Google Scholar
  5. Blizard, D. A. (1970). The Maudsley strains: The evaluation of a possible artifact.Psychon. Sci. 19:145–146.Google Scholar
  6. Blizard, D. A. (1971). Autonomic activity in the rat: Effects of genetic selection for emotionality.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 76:282–289.Google Scholar
  7. Blizard, D. A. (1975). Colonic reactivity in curarized rats of the MR and MNR strains: Differential response to novel stimuli and classical conditioning procedures.Behav. Genet. 5:90 (abst.).Google Scholar
  8. Brewster, D. J. (1968). Genetic analysis of ethanol preferences in rats selected for emotional reactivity.J. Hered. 5:283–286.Google Scholar
  9. Brewster, D. J. (1969). Ethanol preference in strains of rats selectively bred for behavioral characteristics.J. Genet. Psychol. 115:217–227.Google Scholar
  10. Brewster, D. J. (1972). Ethanol preference in strains of rats selectively bred for behavioral characteristics.Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 197:49–53.Google Scholar
  11. Broadhurst, P. L. (1957). Determinants of emotionality in the rat. I. Situational factors.Brit. J. Psychol. 48:1–12.Google Scholar
  12. Broadhurst, P. L. (1958a). Determinants of emotionality in the rat. II. Antecedent factors.Brit. J. Psychol. 49:12–20.Google Scholar
  13. Broadhurst, P. L. (1958b). Studies in psychogenetics: The quantitative inheritance of behavior in rats investigated by selective and cross-breeding.Bull. Brit. Psychol. Soc. 34:2A (abst.).Google Scholar
  14. Broadhurst, P. L. (1960). Experiments in psychogenetics: Applications of biometrical genetics to the inheritance of behaviour. In Eysenck, H. J. (ed.)Experiments in Personality, Vol. I:Psychogenetics and Psychopharmacology, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, pp. 1–102.Google Scholar
  15. Broadhurst, P. L. (1962). A note on further progress in a psychogenetic selection experiment.Psychol. Rep. 10:65–66.Google Scholar
  16. Broadhurst, P. L. (1963). The choice of animal for behavior studies.L.A.C. Coll. Papers 12:65–80.Google Scholar
  17. Broadhurst, P. L. (1964). The hereditary base for action of drugs on animal behaviour. In Steinberg, H., de Reuck, A. V. S., and Knight, J. (eds.),Animal Behaviour and Drug Action, Ciba Foundation Symposium jointly with Co-ordinating Committee for Symposia on Drug Action, Churchill, London, pp. 224–236.Google Scholar
  18. Broadhurst, P. L. (1966). Behavioral inheritance: Past and present.Cond. Reflex 1:3–15.Google Scholar
  19. Broadhurst, P. L. (1967). The biometrical analysis of behavioural inheritance.Sci. Progr. 55:123–139.Google Scholar
  20. Broadhurst, P. L. (1970). Psikhogenetika i biometricheskii analiz nasledovaniya u krysy.Genetika 6:91–99.Google Scholar
  21. Broadhurst, P. L. (1973). Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  22. Broadhurst, P. L., and Eysenck, H. J. (1965). Emotionality in the rat: A problem of response specificity. In: Banks, C. and Broadhurst, P. L. (eds.),Stephanos: Studies in Psychology Presented to Cyril Burt, University of London Press, London, pp. 202–221.Google Scholar
  23. Broadhurst, P. L., and Wallgren, H. (1964). Ethanol and the acquisition of a conditioned response in selected strains of rats.Quart. J. Stud. Alcohol 25:476–489.Google Scholar
  24. Broadhurst, P. L., and Watson, R. H. J. (1964). Brain cholinesterase, body build and emotionality in different strains of rats.Anim. Behav. 12:42–51.Google Scholar
  25. Chamove, A. (1974). Personal communication.Google Scholar
  26. Eller, G. (1974). Personal communication.Google Scholar
  27. Eysenck, H. J. (1965).Smoking, Health and Personality, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London.Google Scholar
  28. Eysenck, H. J., and Broadhurst, P. L. (1964). Experiments with animals: Introduction. In Eysenck, H. J. (ed.),Experiments in Motivation, Pergamon, Oxford, pp. 285–291.Google Scholar
  29. Ferraro, D. P., and York, K. M. (1968). Punishment effects in rats selectively bred for emotional elimination.Psychon. Sci. 10:177–178.Google Scholar
  30. Festing, M., and Staats, J. (1973). Standardized nomenclature for inbred strains of rats: Fourth listing.Transplantation 16:221–245.Google Scholar
  31. Feuer, G. (1963a). Adrenal cortical activity and stress response in rats selectively bred for differences in behaviour.J. Physiol 169:43P-44P.Google Scholar
  32. Feuer, G. (1963b). Influence of thyroid and adrenocorticotrophic hormones and of genetic factors on cholesterol metabolism in the rat. In Grant, J. K. (ed.),The Control of Lipid Metabolism, Academic Press, London, pp. 99–100.Google Scholar
  33. Feuer, G. (1969). Difference in emotional behaviour and in function of the endocrine system in genetically-different strains of albino rats. In Bajusz, E. (ed.),Physiology and Pathology of Adaptation Mechanisms, Pergamon, Oxford, pp. 214–233.Google Scholar
  34. Fulker, D. W. (1970). Maternal buffering of rodent genotype responses to stress: A complex genotype-environment interaction.Behav. Genet. 1:119–124.Google Scholar
  35. Fulker, D. W. (1972). Personal communication.Google Scholar
  36. Fulker, D. W., and Rick, J. T. (1973). Effects of preweaning stimulation on the GABA production in rat cortex.Develop. Psychobiol. 6:349–356.Google Scholar
  37. Garg, M. (1969a). The effects of some central nervous system stimulant and depressant drugs on rearing activity in rats.Psychopharmacologia 14:150–156.Google Scholar
  38. Garg, M. (1969b). Variations in effects of nicotine in four strains of rats.Psychopharmacologia 14:432–438.Google Scholar
  39. Garg, M. (1970). Combined effect of drug and drive on the consolidation process.Psychopharmacologia 18:172–179.Google Scholar
  40. Garg, M., and Holland, H. C. (1967). Consolidation and maze learning: A comparison of several post-trial treatments.Life Sci. 6:1987–1997.Google Scholar
  41. Garg, M., and Holland, H. C. (1968a). Consolidation and maze learning: A further study of post-trial injections of a stimulant drug (nicotine).Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 7:55–59.Google Scholar
  42. Garg, M., and Holland, H. C. (1968b). Consolidation and maze learning: The effects of posttrial injections of a depressant drug (pentobarbital sodium).Psychopharmacologia 12:127–132.Google Scholar
  43. Garg, M., and Holland, H. C. (1968c). Consolidation and maze learning: The effects of posttrial injections of a stimulant drug (picrotoxin).Psychopharmacologia 12:96–103.Google Scholar
  44. Garg, M., and Holland, H. C. (1969). Consolidation and maze learning: A study of some strain/drug interactions.Psychopharmacologia 14:426–431.Google Scholar
  45. Gray, J. A. (1965). A time-sample study of the components of general activity in selected strains of rats.Can. J. Psychol. 19:74–82.Google Scholar
  46. Gray, J. A. (1971).The Psychology of Fear and Stress, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London.Google Scholar
  47. Gray, J. A. (1974). Personal communication.Google Scholar
  48. Gray, J. A., and Levine, S. (1964). The effect of induced oestrus on emotional behaviour in selected strains of rats.Nature 201:1198–1200.Google Scholar
  49. Gray, J. A., Levine, S., and Broadhurst, P. L. (1965). Gonadal hormone injections in infancy and adult emotional behaviour.Anim. Behav. 13:33–45.Google Scholar
  50. Gregory, K. (1967a). A note on strain differences in exploratory activity (rearing).Life Sci. 6:1253–1256.Google Scholar
  51. Gregory, K. (1967b). Stress and strain—The suppression of activity in two strains of rats after exposure to electric shock.Act. Nerv. Super. 9:140–144.Google Scholar
  52. Gregory, K. (1968). The action of the drug prenylamine (Segontin) on exploratory activity in strains of rats selectively bred for differences in emotionality.Psychopharmacologia 13:29–34.Google Scholar
  53. Gregory, K., and Liebelt, E. (1967). An examination of sex and strain differences in the rearing response to a novel environment.Act. Nerv. Supper. 9:137–139.Google Scholar
  54. Gregory, K., Gupta, B. D., and Holland, H. C. (1967). The effects of drugs on activity in two strains of rats selectively bred for high and low emotionality.Life Sci. 6:981–988.Google Scholar
  55. Groves, J. R. (1971). Some determinants of individual differences in rats: Behavioural arousal and learning. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of London.Google Scholar
  56. Gupta, B. C., and Gregory, K. (1967). The effects of drugs and their combinations on the rearing response in two strains of rats.Psychopharmacologia 11:365–371.Google Scholar
  57. Gupta, B. D., and Holland, H. C. (1969a). An examination of the effects of stimulant and depressant drugs on escape/avoidance conditioning in strains of rats selectively bred for emotionality/non-emotionality.Psychopharmacologia 14:95–105.Google Scholar
  58. Gupta, B. D., and Holland, H. C. (1969b). An examination of the effects of stimulant and depressant drugs on escape/avoidance conditioning in strains of rats selectively bred for emotionality/non-emotionality: Intertrial activity.Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 8:227–234.Google Scholar
  59. Gupta, B. D., and Holland, H. C. (1972a). An examination of the effects of stimulant and depressant drugs on escape/avoidance conditioning in strains of rats selectively bred for emotionality/non-emotionality: A multivariate analysis of the effects of drugs on conditioned avoidance responses and intertrial activity.Neuropharmacology 11:23–30.Google Scholar
  60. Gupta, B. D., and Holland, H. C. (1972b). Emotion as a determinant of the effects of drugs and their combination on different components of behaviour in rats.Neuropharmacology 11:31–38.Google Scholar
  61. Hall, C. S. (1938). The inheritance of emotionality.Sigma Xi Quart. 26:17–27, 37. Also in Martin, W. F., and Stendler, C. B. (eds.) (1954).Readings in Child Development, Harcourt Brace, New York, pp. 58–68.Google Scholar
  62. Harrington, G. M. (1971a). Strain differences among rats initiating exploration of different environments.Psychon. Sci. 23:348–349.Google Scholar
  63. Harrington, G. M. (1971b). Strain differences in rotating wheel activity of the rat.Psychon. Sci. 27:363–364.Google Scholar
  64. Harrington, G. M. (1972). Strain differences in open-field behavior of the rat.Psychon. Sci. 27:51–53.Google Scholar
  65. Harrington, G. M., and Hanlon, J. R. (1966). Heart rate, defecation and genetic differences in rats.Psychon. Sci. 6:425–426.Google Scholar
  66. Holland, H. C. (1974). Temperament and tumour: A note on the growth index in two strains of rats following the implantation of a carcinogenic agent.Act. Nerv. Super. 16:17–19.Google Scholar
  67. Holland, H. C., and Gupta, B. D. (1966). The effects of different doses of methylpentynol on escape/avoidance conditioning in two strains of rats selectively bred for high and low “emotionality.”.Psychopharmacologia 9:419–425.Google Scholar
  68. Holland, H. C., and Gupta, B. D. (1967). Effects of drugs on the rearing response in emotionally reactive and non-reactive rats.Act. Nerv. Super. 9:134–136.Google Scholar
  69. Imada, H. (1970). Amount of open-field defecation, home cage defecation and food and water intake in Maudsley reactive and non-reactive strains of rats.Ann. Anim. Psychol. 20:1–6.Google Scholar
  70. Imada, H. (1972). Emotional reactivity and conditionability in four strains of rats.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 79:474–480.Google Scholar
  71. Joffe, J. M. (1964). Avoidance learning and failure to learn in two strains of rats selectively bred for emotionality.Psychon. Sci. 1:185–186.Google Scholar
  72. Joffe, J. M. (1965a). Effect of foster-mothers' strain and pre-natal experience on adult behaviour in rats.Nature 208:815–816.Google Scholar
  73. Joffe, J. M. (1965b). Genotype and prenatal and premating stress interact to affect adult behavior in rats.Science 150:1844–1845.Google Scholar
  74. Joffe, J. M. (1969).Prenatal Determinants of Behaviour, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  75. Katz, D. M. (1973). Personal communication. In Kumar, R., and Stolerman, I. P., Morphine dependent behaviour in rats: Some clinical implications.Psychol. Med. 3:225–237.Google Scholar
  76. Keehn, J. D. (1972a). Schedule-induced drinking and biting by the Maudsley strains of rats. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  77. Keehn, J. D. (1972b). Effects of trihexyphenidyl on schedule-induced alcohol drinking by rats.Psychon. Sci. 29:20–22.Google Scholar
  78. Keehn, J. D. (1974). Agresión dependiente de programas. In Bandura, A., and Ribes, E. (eds.),Modificación de Conducta: Análisis Experimental de la Delincuencia y la Agresión Social, Trillas, México.Google Scholar
  79. Lonowski, D. J., Levitt, R. A., and Larson, S. D. (1974). Mouse killing and carrying by Maudsley and Long-Evans strain rats. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  80. Martin, L. K., and Powell, B. J. (1970). Role of drug effects and UCS intensity in avoidance acquisition of the Maudsley MNR and MR strains.Psychon. Sci. 18:44–45.Google Scholar
  81. Mikhail, A. A. (1969). Genetic predisposition to stomach ulceration in emotionally reactive strains of rats.Psychon. Sci. 15:245–247.Google Scholar
  82. Mikhail, A. A. (1972). The effects of conditioned anxiety on the recovery from experimental ulceration.J. Psychosom. Res. 16:115–122.Google Scholar
  83. Mikhail, A. A., and Broadhurst, P. L. (1965). Stomach ulceration and emotionality in selected strains of rats.J. Psychosom. Res. 8:477–479.Google Scholar
  84. Powell, B. J. (1970). Alcohol effects on reversal learning in the Maudsley MR and MNR strains.Proc. 78th Ann. Convention APA, pp. 825–826.Google Scholar
  85. Powell, B. J., and Hopper, D. J. (1971). Effect of strain differences andd-amphetamine sulfate on avoidance performance.Psychon. Sci. 22:167–168.Google Scholar
  86. Powell, B. J., and North-Jones, M. (1974). Effects of early handling on avoidance performance of Maudsley MR and MNR strains.Develop. Psychobiol. 7:145–148.Google Scholar
  87. Rick, J. T., and Fulker, D. W. (1972). Some biochemical correlates of inherited behavioural differences. In Bradley, P. B., and Brimblecombe, R. W. (eds.),Biochemical and Pharmacological Mechanisms Underlying Behaviour, Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 36, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 105–113.Google Scholar
  88. Rick, J. T., Huggins, A. K., and Kerkut, G. A. (1967). The comparative production of γ-amino butyric acid in the Maudsley reactive and non-reactive strains of rat.Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 20:1009–1012.Google Scholar
  89. Rick, J. T., Tunnicliff, G., Kerkut, G. A., Fulker, D. W., Wilcock, J. and Broadhurst, P. L. (1971). GABA production in brain cortex related to activity and avoidance in eight strains of rat.Brain Res.,32:234–238.Google Scholar
  90. Robinson, R. (1965).Genetics of the Norway Rat, Pergamon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  91. Satinder, K. P. (1971). Genotype-dependent effects ofd-amphetamine sulphate and caffeine on escape-avoidance behavior of rats.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 76:359–364.Google Scholar
  92. Satinder, K. P. (1972a). Behavior-genetic-dependent self-selection of alcohol in rats.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 80:422–434.Google Scholar
  93. Satinder, K. P. (1972b). Effects of intertrial crossing punishment andd-amphetamine sulfate on avoidance and activity in selectively bred rat strains.Psychon. Sci. 29:291–293.Google Scholar
  94. Satinder, K. P. (1974a). Genetic analysis of chronic alcohol intake in rats: Behavioral model. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  95. Satinder, K. P. (1974b). Genetic analysis of oral self-administration of morphine in rats. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  96. Satinder, K. P. (1974c). Genotype-specific reactions of rats to a cat. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  97. Savage, R. D. (1965). An analysis of learning curves: Inherited strain and environmental determinants.Behav. Res. Ther. 2:281–283.Google Scholar
  98. Sudak, H. S., and Maas, J. W. (1964). Behavioral-neurochemical correlation in reactive and nonreactive strains of rats.Science 146:418–420.Google Scholar
  99. Wampler, R. S. (1964). Summation of water aversion and hunger drives in two strains of rats selectively bred for emotionality. Paper presented at meeting of Midwestern Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  100. Weldon, E. (1967). An analogue of extraversion as a determinant of individual differences in behaviour in the rat.Brit. J. Psychol. 58:253–259.Google Scholar
  101. Weldon, E. (1968a). Stimulus or stimulation: Relevant cues in a learning situation involving differences in light reinforcement.Psychon. Sci. 10:239–240.Google Scholar
  102. Weldon, E. (1968b). To see, or not to see: Rearing activity as a function of changes in the visual field.Psychon. Sci.,12:83–84.Google Scholar
  103. Weldon, E. (1969). Rearing activity as a measure of sensory reinforcement.Bull. Brit. Psychol. Soc. 22:148 (abst.).Google Scholar
  104. Wilcock, J. (1966). The role of interfering and facilitatory responses in avoidance conditioning in rats.Bull. Brit. Psychol. Soc. 19:A28 (abst.).Google Scholar
  105. Wilcock, J. (1968). Strain differences in response to shock in rats selectively bred for emotional elimination.Anim. Behav. 16:294–297.Google Scholar
  106. Wilcock, J., and Broadhurst, P. L. (1967). Strain differences in emotionality: Open-field and conditioned avoidance behavior in the rat.J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 63:335–338.Google Scholar
  107. Wraight, K. B., Weldon, E., Gupta, B. D., and Holland, H. C. (1967). The effects of post-trial injections of nicetine on the learning of an underwater discrimination task by rats.Anim. Behav. 15:287–290.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. L. Broadhurst
    • 1
  1. 1.University of BirminghamBirminghamEngland

Personalised recommendations