The chemical background of silver stains used for visualization and characterization of peripheral neuroendocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas, and of their corresponding tumours, was studied in tissue sections and by a dot-blot technique. Sequential staining of pancreatic islets with an immunohistochemical procedure and silver staining of the same tissue section revealed that chromogranin A immunostained cells also displayed an argyrophil reaction with the Grimelius method, but no argentaffin reaction with the Masson technique. Accordingly, purified chromogranin A (15 μg or less) treated in formalin and applied to nitrocellulose did not show any argentaffin reaction but displayed a dose-related argyrophil reaction. Equal quantities of other polypeptide components did not give rise to any silver reaction. Further dot-blot studies showed that the tryptophan and tyrosine metabolites, dopamine, norepinephrine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxindole caused strongly argentaffin and argyrophil reactions while epinephrine, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid and 5-hydroxytryptophan gave only the former reaction. Among other chemical components studied, only guanine displayed weak silver staining. The results indicate that the reaction products between aldehydes and the granular content of biogenic amines synthesized from tryptophan and tryosine display an argentaffin reaction and that the granular chromogranin A caused an argyrophil but no argentaffin reaction.
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Lundqvist, M., Arnberg, H., Candell, J. et al. Silver stains for identification of neuroendocrine cells. A study of the chemical background. Histochem J 22, 615–623 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01072943
- Pancreatic Islet
- Biogenic Amine
- Silver Staining
- Neuroendocrine Cell