Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Freedom of movement among blue collar workers

  • 28 Accesses

  • 1 Citations

Abstract

Freedom of Movement (FM) is seen in this study as the discrepancy between aspiration and personal achievement. Five hundred and sixtythree blue collar workers responded to a mail questionnaire specifically designed to assess FM. Sex, race, and income related monotonically to FM, with Blacks, women, and low income workers showing low FM. Age also related significantly to FM, but in a curvilinear fashion, with mid-age workers having the lowest FM. Implications of low FM (and anomie) are discussed in relation to homelessness, apathy, and other forms of social distress.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bell, W. (1957). Anomie, social isolation, and the class structure.Sociometry, 20, 105–116.

  2. Bendix, R. & Lipset, S. M. (Eds.) (1953),Class status and power. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press.

  3. Crowne, D. F., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psycho-pathology.Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 285–290.

  4. Edwards, A. L. (1954).Personal preference schedule. New York: Psychological Corporation.

  5. Hyman, H. E. (1953). The value system of different classes: A social psychological contribution to the analysis of stratification. In R. Bendix, and S. M. Lipset (Eds.),Class, status, and power. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press.

  6. Jacobs, M. K., & Goodman, G. (1989). Psychology and self-help groups: Predictions on a Partnership.American Psychologist, 44, 536–545.

  7. James, W. H., & Rotter, J. B. (1958). Partial and one hundred percent reinforcement under chance and skill conditions.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55, 397–403.

  8. Knupfer, G. (1953). Portrait of the underdog. In R. Bendix and S. M. Lipset (Eds.),Class, status, and power. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press.

  9. Meier, D. L., & Bell, W. (1959). Anomia and differential access to the achievement of life goals.American Sociological Review, 24, 189–202.

  10. Merton, R. E. (1957).Social theory and social structure. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press.

  11. Myrdal, G. (1944).An American dilemma. New York: Harper.

  12. Reisman, L. (1953). Levels of aspiration and social class.American Sociological Review, 18, 233–242.

  13. Rettig, S. (1990).The discursive social psychology of evidence: Symbolic construction of reality. New York: Plenum Press.

  14. Rettig, S. (1981). Existential dialectics in therapeutic groups.Psychiatric Quarterly, 53, 33–52.

  15. Rettig, S., & Pasamanick, B. (1961). Moral value structure and social class.Sociometry, 24, 21–35.

  16. Rose, A. W. (1946). A Socio-Psychological Analysis of the Ambition Patterns of a Sample of Industrialized Workers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago.

  17. Rotter, J. B. (1945). Level of aspiration as a method of studying personality, IV: The analysis of patterns of response.Journal of Social Psychology, 21, 159–177.

  18. Seligman, M. E. P. (1975).Helplessness: On depression, development, and death. San Francisco: Freeman.

  19. Taylor, J. (1953). A personality scale of manifest anxiety.Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 48, 25–29.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Salomon Rettig.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Rettig, S. Freedom of movement among blue collar workers. J Soc Distress Homeless 2, 23–34 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01072430

Download citation

Key words

  • Freedom of Movement
  • anomie
  • blue collar workers