Oviposition behavior was used to determine the primary clutch size and sex ratio of the polyembryonic wasp Copidosoma floridanumAshmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) parasitizing Pseudoplusia includens(Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The laying of a female egg was associated with a pause in abdominal contractions during oviposition, while the laying of a male egg was associated with uninterrupted abdominal contractions. Although unmated females produced only male broods, they also displayed male and female egg oviposition movements. Wasps always laid a primary clutch of one or two eggs. For mated females if only one egg was laid, the emerging secondary clutch was all male or female, but if two eggs were laid a mixed brood of males and females was almost always produced. The secondary clutch of single sex broods was usually between 1000 and 1200 individuals, but the secondary clutch of mixed broods averaged 1143 females and 49 males. Thus, the primary sex ratio for mixed broods was 0.5 (frequency males), but the secondary sex ratio was 0.042. Manipulation of the sequence of male and female egg oviposition or of the primary clutch did not produce major alterations in the secondary clutch size or sex ratio.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Askew, R. R. (1970).Parasitic Insects, American Eisevier, New York.
Benson, J. F. (1973). Intraspecific competition in the population dynamics ofBracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).J. Anim. Ecol. 42: 105–124.
Chacko, M. (1969). The phenomenon of superparasitism inTrichogramma evanescens andT. minutum Riley (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae).I.Beit. Entomol. 19: 618–635.
Charnov, E. L. (1982).The Theory of Sex Allocation. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.
Charnov, E. L., and Skinner, S. W. (1984). Evolution of host selection and clutch size in parasitoid wasps.Fla. Entomol. 67: 5–21.
Charnov, E. L., los-den Hartogh, R. L., Jones, W. T., and van den Assem, J. (1981). Sex ratio evolution in a variable environment.Nature 289: 27–33.
Cole, L. R., (1981). A visible sign of a fertilization action during oviposition by an ichneumonid wasp,Itoplectis maculator.Anim. Behav. 29: 299–300.
Cruz, Y. P. (1986). Development of the polyembryonic parasiteCopidosomopsis tanytmemus (Hymenoptera: Encrytidae).Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 79: 121–127.
Gerber, H. S., and Klostermeyer, E. C. (1970). Sex control by bees: A voluntary act of egg fertilization during oviposition.Science 167: 82–84.
Godfray, H. C. J. (1986a). Models for clutch size and sex ratio with sibling interaction.Theor. Pop. Biol. 30: 215–231.
Godfray, H. C. J. (1986b). Evolutionary constraints on clutch size production in parasitic wasps.Am. Nat. 129: 221–233.
Godfray, H. C. J. (1987). The evolution of clutch sizes in invertebrates. In Harvey, P. H., and Partridge, L. (eds.),Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology, Oxford University Press, London, pp. 117–154.
Green, R. F., Gordh, G. C., and Hawkins, B. A. (1982). Precise sex ratios in highly inbred parasitic wasps.Am. Nat. 120: 653–655.
Greene, G. L., Leppla, N. C., and Dickerson, W. A. (1976). Velvetbean caterpillar: A rearing procedure and artificial medium.J. Econ. Entomol. 69: 487–488.
Grun, P. (1976).Cytoplasmic Genetics and Evolution, Columbia University Press, New York.
Hamilton, W. D. (1967). Extraordinary sex ratios.Science 156: 477–488.
Ivariova-Kasas, O. M. (1972). Polyembryony in insects. In Counce, S. J., and Waddington, C. H. (eds.),Developmental Systems, Insects, Vol. 2, Academic Press, New York, pp. 243–272.
Iwasa, Y., Suzuki, Y., and Matsuda, H. (1984). Theory of oviposition strategy of parasitids. i. Effect of mortality and limited egg number.Theor. Pop. Biol. 26: 205–227.
Leiby, R. W. (1922). The polyembryonic development ofCopidosoma gelechiae with notes on its biology.J. Morphol. 37: 195–285.
Leiby, R. W. (1926). The origin of mixed broods in polyembryonic Hymenoptera.Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 19: 290–299.
Orzack, S. H., and Parker, E. D. (1986). Sex-ratio control in aparasitic wasp,Nasonia vitripennis. I. Genetic variation in facultative sex-ratio adjustment.Evolution 40: 331–340.
Ott, L. (1984).An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis, Duxbury Press, Boston.
Parker, G. A., and Courtney, S. P. (1984). Models of clutch size in insect oviposition.Theor. Pop. Biol. 26: 27–48.
Patterson, J. T. (1919). Polyembryony and sex.J. Hered. 10: 344–352.
Patterson, J. T. (1921). The development ofParacopidosomopsis.J. Morphol. 36: 1–69.
Pickering, J. (1980). Larval competition and brood sex ratios in the gregarious parasitoidPachysomoides stupidus.Nature 283: 291–292.
Silvestri, F. (1906). Contribuzioni alia conoscenza biologica degli Imenotteri parassiti. Biologia delLitomastix truncatellus (Dalm.) (2∘ nota preliminare).Ann. Regia Sc. Agr. Portici 6: 3–51.
Skinner, S. W. (1982). Maternally inherited sex ratio in the parasitoid waspNasonia vitripennis.Science 215: 133–134.
Skinner, S. W. (1985). Clutch size as an optimal foraging problem for insects.Behav. Ecol. Socio-biol. 17: 231–238.
Stoner, A., and Weeks, R. E. (1976).Copidosoma truncatellum, a polyembryonic parasite ofTrichoplusia ni: Age of host eggs parasitised, searching, fecundity, and effectiveness.Environ. Entomol. 5: 323–328.
Strand, M. R. (1988). Adaptive patterns of progeny and sex allocation by parasitic Hymenoptera. In Gupta, V. (ed.),Advances in Parasitic Hymenoptera, E. J. Brill, Amsterdam (in press).
Suzuki, Y. H., Tsuji, H., and Sasakawa, M. (1984). Sex allocation and effects of superparasitism on secondary sex ratios in the gregarious parasitoidTrichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).Anim. Behav. 32: 478–484.
Waage, J. K. (1982). Sib-mating and sex ratio strategies in scelionid wasps.Ecol. Entomol. 7: 103–112.
Waage, J. K. (1986). Family planning in parasitoids: Adaptive patterns of progeny and sex allocation. In Waage, J., and Greathead, D. (eds.),Insect Parasitoids, Academic Press, London, pp. 63–96.
Waage, J. K., and Lane, J. A. (1984). The reproductive strategy of a parasitic wasp. II. Sex allocation and local mate competition inTrichogramma evanescens.J. Anim. Ecol. 53: 417–426
Waage, J. K., and Ng, S. M. (1984). The reproductive strategy of a parasitic wasp. I. Optimal progeny and sex allocation inTrichogramma evanescens.J. Anim. Ecol. 53: 401–416.
Waage, J. K., and Godfray, H. C. J. (1985). Reproductive strategies and population ecology of insect parasitoids. In Sibley, R. M., and Smith, R. H. (eds.),Behavioural Ecology, Ecological Consequences of Adaptive Behaviour, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp. 449–470.
Werren, J. H., Skinner, S. W., and Charnov, E. L. (1981). Paternal inheritance of a daughterless sex ratio factor.Nature 293: 467–468.
Werren, J. H., Skinner, S. W., and Huger, A. M. (1986). Male killing bacteria in a parasitic wasp.Science 231: 990–992.
Wylie, H. G. (1976). Interference among females ofNasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) and its effect on sex ratio of their progeny.Can. Entomol. 108: 655–661.
About this article
Cite this article
Strand, M.R. Oviposition behavior and progeny allocation of the polyembryonic waspCopidosoma floridanum (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). J Insect Behav 2, 355–369 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01068061
- sex ratio