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Language and cognitive development in 47, XXX females followed since birth

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Abstract

In this report, data are presented on language and cognitive development in an unselected group of eleven 47, XXX females, followed since birth, who are now 6–14 years old. The results of the Yale Developmental Exam (at 2 years) and the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) (at 4–6 years) show an early delay in language development. Those girls who presently have serious language and learning problems were significantly delayed in first walking or talking, whereas the relatively unaffected girls were not. Results of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) at 4 years of age and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC or WISC-R) at 8 years of age are similar and show a generalized depression of both verbal and nonverbal abilities. Thus, unlike 45, X females or 47, XXY males, triple-X females do not have a specifically nonverbal or verbal cognitive deficit.

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Correspondence to A. Robinson.

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Pennington, B., Puck, M. & Robinson, A. Language and cognitive development in 47, XXX females followed since birth. Behav Genet 10, 31–41 (1980). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01067317

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Key Words

  • 47, XXX
  • 45, X
  • sex chromosome aneuploidy
  • cognitive development
  • language development
  • learning disabilities
  • WPPSI
  • WISC
  • WISC-R
  • ITPA
  • YDE
  • psycholinguistics