Advertisement

Is rational-emotive therapy (RET) “rationalist” or “constructivist”?

  • Albert Ellis
Articles

Conclusion

Mahoney, Guidano, and other modern constructivists and process-oriented therapists are partly on the right track and are making some interesting additions to traditional cognitive therapy. But they sometimes also revert to inefficient and side-tracking psychoanalytically-oriented methods of therapy. RET, in both its individual and family therapy approaches, attempts to use the most effective and hardheaded of the so-called rationalist methods—including active—directive changing of unrealistic and irrational Beliefs, skill training, problemsolving, bibliotherapy, in vivo desensitization, and reinforcement procedures-and it also employs many of the methods of the cognitive constructivists—including the disclosing of tacit philosophies; the achievement of a profound philosophical change in clients' attitudes toward themselves, toward others, and toward life situations; the use of the therapist's relationship with clients to show them how to unconditionally accept themselves; and the employment of many dramatic, emotive, and experiential exercises to change clients' feelings as well as their thoughts and behaviors. RET is particularly interested in effecting both individual and familial change as quickly and as efficiently as feasible. It is therefore rational (efficaciously hedonic)and emotive (energetically experiential). Or at least tries to be!

Keywords

Public Health Cognitive Therapy Interesting Addition Modern Constructivist 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adler, T. (1989). Study finds genetic defect linked with schizophrenia.American Psychological Association Monitor, 20(1), 15.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1986).Social foundations of thoughts and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Hartley, W. W. (1962).The retreat to commitment. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, A.T. (1976).Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, A.T., Rush, A.J., Shaw, B.F., & Emergy, G. (1979).Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  6. Berne, E. (1972). What do you say after you say hello? New York: Grove.Google Scholar
  7. Bowlby, J. (1969).Attachment and loss. I: Attachment. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  8. Bowlby, J. (1973).Attachment and loss. II: Separation. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  9. Bowlby, J. (1980).Attachment and loss. III: Loss: Sadness and depression. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  10. Bradley, P. B., & Hirsch, S. R. (Eds.) (1986).The psychopharmacology and treatment of schizophrenia. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Chess, S., Thomas, T., & Birch, H. G. (1965).Your child is a person. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
  12. Crawford, T., & Ellis, A. (1989). A dictionary of rational-emotive feelings and behaviors.Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, 7(1), 3–27.Google Scholar
  13. Dobson, K. S. (1988). The present and future of the cognitive-behavioral therapies. In K. S. Dobson (Ed.),Handbook of cognitive-behavioral therapies (pp. 387–414). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  14. D'Zurilla, T. J., & Goldfried, M. R. (1971) Problem-solving and behavior modification.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 78, 107–126.Google Scholar
  15. Ellis, A. (1957).How to live with a neurotic: At home and at work. New York: Crown. Rev. ed., Hollywood, CA: Wilshire Books, 1975.Google Scholar
  16. Ellis, A. (1958). Rational psychotherapy.Journal of General Psychology, 59, 35–49. Reprinted: New York: Institute for Rational-Emotive Therapy.Google Scholar
  17. Ellis, A. (1962).Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. Secaucus, NJ: Citadel.Google Scholar
  18. Ellis, A. (1965a).The treatment of borderline and psychotic individuals. New York: Institute for Rational-Emotive Therapy, Rev. ed., 1988.Google Scholar
  19. Ellis, A. (1965b). Workshop in rational-emotive therapy. Institute for Rational-Emotive Therapy, New York City, September 8.Google Scholar
  20. Ellis, A. (1969). A weekend of rational encounter.Rational Living, 4(2), 1–8.Google Scholar
  21. Ellis, A. (1971).Growth through reason. North Hollywood, CA: Wilshire Books.Google Scholar
  22. Ellis, A. (1972a).Psychotherapy and the value of a human being. New York: Institute for Rational-Emotive Therapy.Google Scholar
  23. Ellis, A. (1972b). Helping people get better rather than merely feel better.Rational Living, 7(2), 2–9.Google Scholar
  24. Ellis, A. (1973).Humanistic psychotherapy: The rational-emotive approach. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  25. Ellis, A. (1976a). The biological basis of human irrationality.Journal of Individual Psychology, 32, 145–168. Reprinted: New York: Institute for Rational-Emotive Therapy.Google Scholar
  26. Ellis, A. (1976b). RET abolishes most of the human ego.Psychotherapy, 13, 343–348. Reprinted: New York: Institute for Rational-Emotive Therapy.Google Scholar
  27. Ellis, A. (1977).Anger-how to live with and without it. Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press.Google Scholar
  28. Ellis, A. (1979). The theory of rational-emotive therapy. In A. Ellis & J.M. Whiteley (Eds.),Theoretical and empirical foundations of rational-therapy (pp. 33–60). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  29. Ellis, A. (1984). Is the unified-interaction approach to cognitive-behavior modification a reinvention of the wheel?Clinical Psychology Review, 4, 215–218.Google Scholar
  30. Ellis, A. (1985a).Overcoming resistance: Rational-emotive therapy with difficult clients. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  31. Ellis, A. (1985b). Expanding the ABC's of rational-emotive therapy. In M. Mahoney & A. Freeman (Eds.), Cognition and psychotherapy (pp. 313–323). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  32. Ellis, A. (1987a). The impossibility of achieving consistently good mental health.American Psychologist, 42, 364–375.Google Scholar
  33. Ellis, A. (1987b). A sadly neglected cognitive element in depression.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 11, 121–146.Google Scholar
  34. Ellis, A. (1988a). Are there “rationalist” and “constructivist” camps of the cognitive therapist?Cognitive Behaviorist, 10, 13–17.Google Scholar
  35. Ellis, A. (1988b). Further comments on dichotomies and classifications in the cognitive therapies,Cognitive Behaviorist, 10, 22–23.Google Scholar
  36. Ellis, A. (1988c).How to stubbornly refuse to make yourself miserable about anything—yes, anything! New York: Lyle Stuart.Google Scholar
  37. Ellis, A. (1989a). Rational-emotive therapy. In R. J. Corsini & D. Wedding (Eds.),Current psychotherapies. 4th ed. Itasca, IL: Peacock.Google Scholar
  38. Ellis, A. (1988b). Ineffective consumerism in psychotherapy. In W. Dryden (Ed.),Therapeutic stress and change: contributions from cogitive psychotherapy. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  39. Ellis, A. & Becker, I. (1982).A guide to personal happiness. North Hollywood, CA: Wilshire Books.Google Scholar
  40. Ellis, A., & Dryden, W. (1987).The practice of rational-emotive therapy. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  41. Ellis, A., & Harper, R. A. (1975).A new guide to rational living. North Hollywood, CA: Wilshire Books.Google Scholar
  42. Ellis, A., & Yeager, R. (1989).Why some therapies don't work: The dangers of transpersonal psychology. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus.Google Scholar
  43. Ellis, A., Young, J., & Lockwood, G. (1987). Cognitive therapy and rational-emotive therapy: A dialogue.Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 1(4), 137–187.Google Scholar
  44. Fairburn, C. G. (1985). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for bulimia. In D. M. Gardner & P. E. Garfinkel (Eds.),Handbook of psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  45. Frank, J. D. (1973).Peruasion and healing. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins.Google Scholar
  46. Freud, S. (1965).Standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud. London: Hogarth.Google Scholar
  47. Garner, D. M., & Bemis, K. M. (1985). Cognitive therapy for anorexia nervosa. In D. M. Garner & P. E. Garfinkel (Eds.),Handbook of psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  48. Green, J., Bax, D. M., & Tsitsikas, H. (1989). Neonatal behavior and early temperament.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59, 72–81.Google Scholar
  49. Guidano, V. F. (1988). A systems, process-oriented approach to cognitive therapy. In K. S. Dobson (Ed.),Handbook of cognitive behavioral therapies (pp. 307–356). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  50. Haley, J. (1973).Uncommon therapy: The psychiatric techniques of Milton H. Erickson. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  51. Hayek, F. A. (1978).New studies in philosophy, politics, economics, and the history of ideas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  52. Korzybski, A. (1933).Science and sanity. San Francisco: International Society of General Semantics.Google Scholar
  53. Lazarus, R. S. (1966).Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  54. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984).Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  55. Mahoney, M. J. (1976).Scientist as subject. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  56. Mahoney, M. J. (1988). The cognitive sciences and psychotherapy: Patterns in a developing relationship. In K. S. Dobson (Ed.),Handbook of the cognitive-behavioral therapies (pp. 357–386). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  57. Maultsby, M. C., Jr. (1984).Rational behavior therapy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  58. Meichenbaum, D. (1977).Cognitive-behavior modification. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  59. Neisser, U. (1967).Cognitive psychology. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts.Google Scholar
  60. Peveler, R. C., & Fairburn, C. G. (1989). Anorexia nervosa in association with diabetus mellitus-a cognitive-behavioral approach to treatment.Behavior Research and Therapy, 27, 95–99.Google Scholar
  61. Polanyi, M. (1966).The tacit dimension. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  62. Popper, K. R. (1959).The logic of scientific discovery. New York: Harper & Bros.Google Scholar
  63. Raimy, V. (1975).Misunderstandings of the self. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  64. Rogers, C. R. (1961).On becoming a person. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.Google Scholar
  65. Rosenthal, D. (1970).Genetic theory and abnormal behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  66. Rosenthal, D., & Kety, S. S. (Eds.) (1968). The transmission of schizophrenia. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  67. Seligman, M.E.P. (1975).Helplessness. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  68. Weimer, W. B. (1975). The psychology of inference and expectation. In G. Maxwell & R. M. Anderson (Eds.),Induction, probability and confirmation. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  69. Weimer, W. B. (1977). A conceptual framework for cognitive psychology. In R. Shaw & J. D. Bransford (Eds.),Acting, perceiving and knowing. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  70. Werner, E. E. (1989). High-risk children in young adulthood.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59, 72–81.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albert Ellis
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Rational-Emotive TherapyNew York

Personalised recommendations