Journal of Quantitative Criminology

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 207–228 | Cite as

The criminality of female narcotics addicts: A causal modeling approach

  • Yih-Ing Hser
  • Chih-Ping Chou
  • M. Douglas Anglin
Article

Abstract

A longitudinal model was developed relating early deviance, narcotics use, and three types of income-generating crime (property crime, drug dealing, and prostitution) among female narcotics addicts during the first 2 years of the addiction career. The model was tested by a confirmatory structural equation analysis. Early deviance predicted subsequent property crime involvement. Stability across time was demonstrated for narcotics use, property crime, and drug dealing. Strong contemporaneous relationships among these constructs were found. These findings partially replicate patterns found in previous studies for male addicts. In contrast to male addicts, a positive, instead of negative, contemporaneous relationship was found between property crime and drug dealing activities. Between constructs, cross-lag effects were generally small and only that between property crime and later narcotics use was significant. Finally, prostitution was failed to be incorporated in the model. Further research is needed to elucidate the diverse economic support systems among women which may affect the drug-crime relationship.

Key words

criminality female narcotics addiction causality 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akers, R. (1973).Deviant Behavior: A Social Learning Approach, Wadsworth, Belmont, Calif.Google Scholar
  2. Albright, W. J., and Taylor, P. L. (1978). Nondrug criminal behavior associated with heroin use: A review of current research.Contemp. Drug Prob. 8(4): 557–589.Google Scholar
  3. Anglin, M. D., and Hser, Y. (1987). Addicted women and crime.Criminology 25(2): 359–397.Google Scholar
  4. Anglin, M. D., and McGlothlin, W. H. (1983). Methadone maintenance in California: A decade's experience. In Brill, L., and Winick, C. (eds.),The Yearbook of Substance Use and Abuse, Human Sciences Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Anglin, M. D., and Speckart, G. (1986). Narcotics use, property crime, and dealing: Structural dynamics across the addiction career.J. Quant. Criminol. 2(4): 355–375.Google Scholar
  6. Anglin, M. D., and Speckart, G. (1988). Narcotics use and crime: A multisample, multimethods analysis.Criminology 26(2): 197–233.Google Scholar
  7. Anglin, M. D., Hser, Y., and Booth, M. W. (1987a). Sex differences in addict careers: Treatment.Am. J. Drug Alc. Abuse 13: 253–280.Google Scholar
  8. Anglin, M. D., Hser, Y., and McGlothlin, W. H. (1987b). Sex differences in addict careers: Becoming addicted.Am. J. Drug Alc. Abuse 13: 59–71.Google Scholar
  9. Ball, J. C., Shaffer, J. W., and Nurco, D. N. (1983). The day-to-day criminality of heroin addicts in Baltimore: A study in the continuity of offense rates.Drug Alc. Depend. 12: 119–142.Google Scholar
  10. Bentler, P. M. (1980). Multivariate analysis with latent variables: Causal modeling.Annu. Rev. Psychol. 31: 419–456.Google Scholar
  11. Bentler, P. M. (1985).Theory and Implementation of EQS: A Structural Equation Program, BMPP Statistical Software, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  12. Bentler, P. M., and Chou, C.-P. (1986). Statistics for parameter expansion and contraction in structural models. Paper presented at the American Educational Association Meeting, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  13. Blum, R. H. (1979). Controlling heroin and addict crime.J Drug Issues 9: 311–316.Google Scholar
  14. Blumstein, A., Cohen, J., Roth, J., and Visher, C. (eds.) (1986).Criminal Careers and “Career Criminals”, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  15. Chambers, C. D., Hinesley, R. K., and Moldestad, M. (1970). Narcotic addiction in females: A race comparison.Int. J. Addict. 5: 257.Google Scholar
  16. Cushman, P., Jr. (1972). Methadone maintenance treatment of narcotic addiction: Analysis of police records of arrest before and after treatment.N.Y. State J. Med. 72(1): 752–769.Google Scholar
  17. Ellinwood, E. H., Smith, W. G., and Vaillant, G. E. (1966). Narcotic addictions in males and females: A comparison.Int. J. Addict. 1: 33–45.Google Scholar
  18. Greenberg, S. W., and Adler, F. (1974). Crime and addiction: An empirical analysis of the literature, 1920–1973.Contemp. Drug Prob. 3: 221–269.Google Scholar
  19. Hendler, H., and Stephens, R. (1977). The addict odyssey: From experimentation to addiction.Int. J. Addict. 12(1): 25–42.Google Scholar
  20. Hindelang, M. J. (1973). Causes of delinquency: A partial replication and extension.Soc. Prob. 20: 471–487.Google Scholar
  21. Hser, Y., Anglin, M. D., and Booth, M. W. (1987a). Sex differences in addict careers: Addiction.Am. J. Drug Alc. Abuse 13: 231–251.Google Scholar
  22. Hser, Y., Anglin, M. D., and McGlothlin, W. H. (1987b). Sex differences in addict careers: Initiation of use.Am. J. Drug Alc. Abuse 13: 33–57.Google Scholar
  23. Huba, G. J., and Harlow, L. L. (1983). Comparison of maximum likelihood, generalized least squares, and asymptotically distribution free parameter estimates in drug abuse latent variable causal models.J. Drug Educ. 13: 387–404.Google Scholar
  24. Inciardi, J. A. (1985). Narcotics, prostitution, and the enslavement theory of addiction. Paper presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.Google Scholar
  25. Inciardi, J. A., and Chambers, C. D. (1972). Unreported criminal involvement of narcotic addicts.J. Drug Issues 2: 56–64.Google Scholar
  26. Inciardi, J. A., and Pottieger, A. E. (1986). Drug use and crime among two cohorts of women narcotics users: An empirical assessment.J. Drug Issues 14: 91–106.Google Scholar
  27. James, J., Gosho, C., and Wohl, R. W. (1979). The relationship between female criminality and drug use.Int. J. Addict. 14: 215–229.Google Scholar
  28. Johnson, B. D., Goldstein, P., Preble, E., Schmeidler, J., Lipton, D. S., Spunt, B., and Miller, T., (1985).Taking Care of Business: The Economics of Crime by Heroin Abusers, Lexington Books, Lexington, Mass.Google Scholar
  29. Johnson, R. E. (1985).Juvenile Delinquency and Its Origins, Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Joreskog, K. G. (1977). Structural equation models in the social sciences: Specifications, estimation and testing. In Krishnaiaha, P. R. (ed.),Applications of Statistics, North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 77–104.Google Scholar
  31. Joreskog, K. G., and Sorbom, D. (1986).LISREL VI: Analysis of Linear Structural Relationships by Maximum Likelihood, Instrumental Variables, and Least Squares Methods, Scientific Software, Mooresville, Ind.Google Scholar
  32. Kaplan, H. S. (1980).Deviant Behavior in Defense of Self, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Lukoff, I. F. (1974). Issues in the evaluation of heroin treatment. In Josephson, E., and Carroll, E. E. (eds.),Drug Use, Epidemiological and Sociological Approaches, Hemisphere Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  34. McGlothlin, W. H. (1978). The etiologic relationship between drug use and criminality. In Israel, Y., Glaser, F., Kalant, H., Popham, R., Schmidt, W., and Smart, R. (eds.),Research Advances in Alcohol and Drug Problems, Vol. 4, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 367–394.Google Scholar
  35. McGlothlin, W. H., and Anglin, M. D. (1981). Shutting off methadone: Costs and benefits.Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 38: 885–892.Google Scholar
  36. McGlothlin, W. H., Anglin, M. D., and Wilson, B. D. (1977). An evaluation of the California Civil Addict Program. NIDA Services Research Monograph Series, DHEW Publication No. (ADM) 78-558. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  37. Nurco, D. N., Bonito, A. J., Lerner, M., and Batler, M. B. (1975). Studying addicts over time: Methodology and preliminary findings.Am. J. Drug Alc. Abuse 2: 183–196.Google Scholar
  38. Nurco, D. N., Ball, J. C., Shaffer, J. W., and Hanlon, T. E. (1985). The criminality of narcotics addicts.J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 173(2): 94–102.Google Scholar
  39. Nurco, D. N., Hanlon, T. E., Kinlock, T, W., and Duszynski, K. R. (1988). Differential criminal patterns of narcotic addicts over an addiction career.Criminology 26(3): 407–423.Google Scholar
  40. Petersilia, J., Greenwood, P. W., and Lavin, M. (1978).Criminal Careers of Habitual Felons, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  41. Powers, K., Hanssens, D. M., Hser, Y., and Anglin, M. D. (1990). Long-term and short-term impact of methadone treatment and legal supervision on narcotics use and crime.Manage. Sci., submitted.Google Scholar
  42. Rogasa, D. (1979). Causal models in longitudinal research: Rationale, formulation, and interpretation. In Nesselroade, J. R. and Baltes, P. B. (eds.),Longitudinal Research in the Study of Behavior and Development, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Rosenbaum, M. (1981).Women on Heroin, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, N.J.Google Scholar
  44. Shaffer, J. W., Nurco, D. N., and Kinlock, T. W. (1984). A new classification of narcotic addicts based on type and extent of criminal activity.Comp. Psychiat. 25: 315–328.Google Scholar
  45. Speckart, G., and Anglin, M. D. (1985). Narcotics and crime: An analysis of existing evidence for a causal relationship.Behav. Sci. Law 3(3): 259–282.Google Scholar
  46. Speckart, G., and Anglin, M. D. (1986a). Narcotics and crime: A causal modeling approach,J. Quant. Criminal 2(1): 3–28.Google Scholar
  47. Speckart, G., and Anglin, M. D. (1986b). Narcotics use and crime: An overview of recent research advances.Com. Drug Prob. Winter: 741–769.Google Scholar
  48. Stephens, R. C., and Ellis, R. D. (1975). Narcotic addicts and crime: Analysis of recent trends.Criminology 12: 474–488.Google Scholar
  49. Stephens, R. C., and McBride, D., (1975). Becoming a street addict.Hum. Organiz. 35(1): 78–94.Google Scholar
  50. Wolfgang, M. E., Figlio, R. M., and Sellin, T. (1972).Delinquency in a Birth Cohort, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yih-Ing Hser
    • 1
  • Chih-Ping Chou
    • 2
  • M. Douglas Anglin
    • 1
  1. 1.Neuropsychiatric InstituteUniversity of CaliforniaLos Angeles
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaLos Angeles

Personalised recommendations