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Inhibition of avian esterases by organophosphorus insecticides: Problems of reactivation and storage

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Abstract

Brain and serum esterase activities were measured in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) dosed with corn oil, demeton-S-methyl (S-[2-(ethyl thio)ethyl]O,O-dimethyl phosphorothioate), chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethylO-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl) phosphorothioate) or triazophos (O,O-diethylO-(1-phenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl) phosphorothioate). Activity was assayed before and after (1) storage at 20°C and (2) chemical reactivation by pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide (P2AM). During storage, significant spontaneous reactivation occurred in samples from birds dosed with chlorpyrifos or triazophos but not in the birds dosed with demeton-S-methyl or corn oil. The degree of chemical reactivation of samples was dependent on the compound administered, the type of esterase and the time after dosing. Brain acetylcholinesterase appeared to be more readily reactivated than serum esterases by P2AM. Following dosing with the diethyl organophosphorus compounds, spontaneous or chemical reactivation sometimes resulted in levels of esterase activity above those measured before dosing. This indicates that release and/orde novo synthesis had occurred. It is important to take into account spontaneous reactivation during storage when assessing the inhibition of esterase activity.

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Thompson, H.M., Walker, C.H. & Hardy, A.R. Inhibition of avian esterases by organophosphorus insecticides: Problems of reactivation and storage. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 20, 509–513 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01065840

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Keywords

  • Ethyl
  • Diethyl
  • Acetylcholinesterase
  • Chemical Reactivation
  • Thio