Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Differences between nonprofessional recovering alcoholic counselors treating Bowery alcoholics: A study of therapist variables

  • 19 Accesses


Several treatment variables have been suggested as critical in the outcome of psychiatric therapy. These can be categorized as patient variables, therapy variables, and therapist variables. This study utilized a homogeneous Bowery-patient population, treated in a comprehensive inpatient treatment and rehabilitation program, and attempted to assess differences among nonprofessional recovering alcoholic counselors. The therapeutic outcome of the alcoholic patients was correlated with the values held by the counselors as assessed on the Rokeach Value Scale, suggesting that this instrument may provide an easy to administer and inexpensive screening method for counselors of patients suffering from alcoholism.


The treatment of Bowery residents suffering from alcoholism treated by non-professional recovering alcoholic counselors is correlated with the values they hold on the Rokeach Scale—positive values being broadminded, imaginative, loving, and equality, and negative values being national security and independence.

The treatment outcome of Bowery residents treated by nonprofessional recovering alcoholic counselors is suggestively correlated with personality profiles on the MMPI and their time utilization.

The treatment outcome of Bowery residents treated by nonprofessional recovering alcoholic counselors is not correlated with the age, religion, ethnicity, education, marital status, or veteran status of the patients.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Malan DH: The outcome problem in psychotherapy research: A historical review.Arch Gen Psychiatry 29:719–729, 1973.

  2. 2.

    Stone AR, Frank JD, Nash EH, Imber SD, An intensive five-year follow-up of treated psychiatric outpatients.J Nerv Ment Dis 133:410–422, 1961.

  3. 3.

    Auerbach AH, Luborsky L, Johnson M: Clinicians' predictions of outcome of psychotherapy: A trial of a prognostic index.Am J Psychiatry 128:830–835, 1972.

  4. 4.

    McPartland TS, Richart RH: Social and clinical outcomes of psychiatric treatment.Arch Gen Psychiatry 14:179–184, 1966.

  5. 5.

    Uhlenhuth EH, Duncan DB: Subjective change with medical student therapists: Some determinants of change in psychoneurotic outpatients.Arch Gen Psychiatry 18:532–540, 1968.

  6. 6.

    Nash EH, Hoehn-Saric R, Battle CC, Stone AR, Imber SD, Frank JD: Systematic preparation of patients for short-term psychotherapy. II. Relation to characteristics of patient, therapist, and the psychotherapeutic process.J Nerv Ment dis 140:374–380, 1965.

  7. 7.

    Welkowitz J, Cohen J, Ortmeyer D: Value system similarity: Investigation of patient-therapist dyads.J Consult Psychol 31:48–55, 1967.

  8. 8.

    Holt WE: The concept of motivation for treatment.Am J Psychiatry 123:1388–1394, 1967.

  9. 9.

    Goldstein AP:Therapist-Patient Expectancies in Psychotherapy. New York, Pergamon, 1962.

  10. 10.

    Luborsky L, Singer B, Luborsky L: Comparative studies of psychotherapies.Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:995–1012, 1975.

  11. 11.

    Committee on Research, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry, Pharmacology and Psychotherapy:Paradoxes, Problems and Progress. GAP Report #93, Vol IX, 1975, New York.

  12. 12.

    Ward CH: Psychotherapy research: Dilemnas and directions.Arch Gen Psychiatry 10:596–622, 1964.

  13. 13.

    Strupp HH: On the technology of psychotherapy.Arch Gen Psychiatry 26: 270–278, 1972.

  14. 14.

    Kaplowitz D: Techniques effecting change in analytically oriented psychotherapy.Am J Psychother 14:677–690, 1960.

  15. 15.

    Rusk TN, Gerner RH:A study of the process of emergency psychotherapy.Am J Psychiatry 128:882–886, 1972.

  16. 16.

    Cappon D: Results of psychotherapy.Br J Psychiatry 110:35–45, 1964.

  17. 17.

    Marmor J.Psychiatrists and Their Patients. Joint Information Service, Washington, D.C. 1975.

  18. 18.

    Orlinksy DE, Howard KI: The good therapy hour.Arch Gen Psychiatry 16:621–632, 1967.

  19. 19.

    Strupp HH, Wallach MS, Hogan M, Jenkins JW:Psychotherapists' assessments of former patients.J Nerv Ment Dis 137:222–230, 1963.

  20. 20.

    Carkhuff RR, Pierce R: Differential effects of therapist race and social class upon patient depth of self-exploration in the initial clinical interview.J Consult Psychol 31:632–634, 1967.

  21. 21.

    Shapiro ET, Pinsker H: Shared ethnic scotoma.Am J Psychiatry 130:1338–1341, 1973.

  22. 22.

    Whitehorn JC, Betz BJ: A study of psychotherapeutic relationships between physicians and schizophrenic patients.Am J Psychiatry 111:323–331, 1954.

  23. 23.

    Whitehorn JC, Betz BJ: Further studies of the doctor as a crucial variable in the outcome of treatment with schizophrenic patients.Am J Psychiatry 117:215–223, 1960.

  24. 24.

    McNair DM, Callahan DM, Lorr M: Therapist “type” and patient response to psychotherapy.J Consult Psychol 26:425–429, 1962.

  25. 25.

    Truax CB, Carkhuff RR: Toward effective counseling and psychotherapy training and practice. Chicago, Aldine, 1967.

  26. 26.

    Danish S: Utilization of Rokeach Value Survey in predicting counselor success. Unpublished paper.

  27. 27.

    Rokeach M:The Nature of Human Values. New York, The Free Press, 1973.

  28. 28.

    Kernberg OF et al: Psychotherapy and psychoanalysis: Final report of the Menninger Foundation's Psychotherapy Research Project.Bull Menninger Clin 36:nos. 1, 2, 1972.

  29. 29.

    Blane HT, Meyers WR: Social class and establishment of treatment relations by alcoholics.J Clin Psychol 20:287–290, 1964.

  30. 30.

    Covner BJ: Screening volunteer alcoholism counselors.Q St J Alc 30:420–424, 1969.

  31. 31.

    Chafetz ME, Hertzman M, Berenson D: Alcoholism: A positive view. In Arieti S (ed):The American Handbook of Psychiatry, Vol. 3, Chap. 18. New York, Basic Books, 1974, pp 367–403.

  32. 32.

    Carson RC, Harden JA, Shows WD: A-B Distinctions and behavior in quasi-therapeutic situations.J Consult Psychol 28:426–433, 1964.

  33. 33.

    Carson RC: A-B Therapist “types”: A possible critical variable in psychotherapy.J Nerv Ment Dis 144:47–54, 1967.

  34. 34.

    McLachlan JFC: Therapy strategies, personality orientation and recovery from alcoholism.Can Psychiat Assoc J 19:25–29, 1974.

  35. 35.

    Weed LL: Medical records that guide and teach.New Engl J Med 278:593–599, 652–657, 1968.

  36. 36.

    Kubie LS: The process of evaluation of therapy in psychiatry.Arch Gen Psychiatry 28:880–884, 1973.

  37. 37.

    Fiske DW, Hunt HF, Luborsky L, Orne MT, Parloff MB, Reiser MF, Tuma AH: Planning of research on effectiveness of psychotherapy.Arch Gen Psychiatry 22:22–32, 1970.

  38. 38.

    Frank JD: Evaluation of psychiatric treatment. In Freedman et al (eds):Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1975, Chap 33, pp 2011–2014.

  39. 39.

    Committee on Research, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry: Psychiatric research and the assessment of change. New York, GAP Report No. 63, Vol. VI, 1966.

  40. 40.

    Goldfarb C: Patients nobody wants—skid row alcoholics.Dis Nerv Sys 31:274–281, 1970.

  41. 41.

    Hoffmann H, Wojtowicz EH, Anderson, DE: Analysis of demographic variables characterizing hospitalized male alcoholics.Psychol Rep 29:27–33, 1971.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Dr. John A. Talbott M.D..

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Talbott, J.A., Gillen, C. Differences between nonprofessional recovering alcoholic counselors treating Bowery alcoholics: A study of therapist variables. Psych Quart 50, 333–342 (1978). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01064460

Download citation


  • Public Health
  • Marital Status
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Rehabilitation Program
  • Screening Method