Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been developed describing the disposition kinetics of nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine, in man. Separate 9-compartment, flow-limited PBPK models were initially created for nicotine and cotinine. The physiological basis for compartment designation and parameter selection has been provided;chemical-specific tissue-to-blood partition coefficients and elimination rates were derived from published human and animal data. The individual models were tested through simulations of published studies of nicotine and cotinine infusions in man using similar dosing protocols to those reported. Each model adequately predicted the time course of nicotine or cotinine concentrations in the blood and urine following the administration of nicotine or cotinine. These individual models were then linked through the liver compartments to form a nicotine-cotinine model capable of predicting the metabolic production and disposition of cotinine from administered nicotine. The potential for integrating this functional PBPK model with an appropriate pharmacodynamic model for the characterization of nicotine's physiological effects is discussed.
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Robinson, D.E., Balter, N.J. & Schwartz, S.L. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for nicotine and cotinine in man. Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics 20, 591–609 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01064421
- physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model
- interindividual variability