Journal of Risk and Uncertainty

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 19–41 | Cite as

The fatality and injury costs of expenditures

  • W. Kip Viscusi
  • Richard J. Zeckhauser


All production activities generate health risks to workers. This article employs input-output analysis in conjunction with job-risk data by industry to construct measures of the direct and indirect risks imposed by expenditures. Both fatalities and nonfatal injuries (which include illnesses) are considered. The occupational-risk component of expenditures is generally in the range of 3–4% of costs, with nonfatal injuries contributing the larger share. Expenditure levels that generate a fatality or a lost-workday injury are provided by industry, as are a variety of other measures that consider both created and avoided risks pertinent to risk-risk analyses and cost-effectiveness analyses, respectively.

Key words

input-output analysis fatality costs risk-risk analysis 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Kip Viscusi
    • 1
  • Richard J. Zeckhauser
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsDuke UniversityDurham
  2. 2.Kennedy School of GovernmentHarvard UniversityUSA

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