Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Marcus, Kripke, and the origin of the new theory of reference

Abstract

In this paper, presented at an APA colloquium in Boston on December 28, 1994, it is argued that Ruth Barcan Marcus' 1961 article on “Modalities and Intensional Languages” originated many of the key ideas of the New Theory of Reference that have often been attributed to Saul Kripke and others. For example, Marcus argued that names are directly referential and are not equivalent to contingent descriptions, that names are rigid designators, and that identity sentences with co-referring names are necessary if true. She also first presented the modal argument that names are directly referential, the epistemic argument that names are directly referential, and the argument that there area posteriori necessities.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Almog, Joseph: 1984, ‘Semantical Anthropology’, in P. French, et al. (eds.),Midwest Studies in Philosophy 9, 479–90.

  2. Almog, Joseph: 1986, ‘Naming Without Necessity’,The Journal of Philosophy,83, 210–42.

  3. David Braun: 1993, ‘Empty Names’,Noûs 27(4), 443–69.

  4. Donnellan, Keith: 1966, ‘Speaking of Nothing’,The Philosophical Review,83, 3–32.

  5. Kaplan, David: 1985, ‘Dthat’, in A. Martinich (ed.),The Philosophy of Language, New York: Oxford University Press.

  6. Kaplan, David: 1989, ‘Demonstratives’, in J. Almog et al. (eds.),Themes from Kaplan, New York: Oxford University Press.

  7. Kripke, Saul: 1980,Naming and Necessity, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

  8. Kripke, Saul: 1972, ‘Naming and Necessity’, in D. Davidson and G. Harman (eds.),Semantics of Natural Language, Dordrecht: Reidel, pp. 253–355.

  9. Kripke, Saul: 1971 ‘Identity and Necessity’, in M. Munitz (ed.)Identity and Individuation, New York: New York University Press.

  10. Linksky, Leonard: 1977,Names and Descriptions, Chicago. University of Chicagao Press.

  11. Marcus, Ruth Barcan: 1993,Modalities, New York: Oxford University Press.

  12. Marcus, Ruth Barcan: (1961) ‘Modalities and Intensional Languages’,Synthese 13, 303–22.

  13. [Marcus] Barcan, R.: 1946, ‘A Functional Calculus of First Order Based on Strict Implication’,Journal of Symbolic Logic 11, 1–16.

  14. [Marcus] Barcan, R.: 1946, ‘The Identity of Individuals in a Strict Functional Calculus of First Order’,Journal of Symbolic Logic 12, 12–5.

  15. Marcus, Ruth Barcan, et al.: 1962, ‘Discussion of the Paper of Ruth B. Marcus’,Synthese 14, 132–43.

  16. McDowell, John: 1994,Mind and World, Cambridge, Mass.

  17. Munitz, Milton: 1981,Contemporary Analytic Philosophy, New York, Macmillan Pub. Co.

  18. Perry, John: 1977, ‘Frege On Demonstratives’,The Philosophical Review 86, 474–97.

  19. Perry, John: 1988, ‘Cognitive Signficance and New Theories of Reference’,Noûs 22, 1–18.

  20. Plantinga, Alvin: 1978, ‘The Boethian Compromise’,American Philosophical Quarterly 15, 129–38.

  21. Recanati, F: 1988, ‘Rigidity and Direct Reference’,Philosophical Studies 103–17.

  22. Salmon, Nathan: 1981,Reference and Essence, Princteon, Princeton University Press.

  23. Salmon, Nathan: 1986,Frege's Puzzle, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

  24. Sidelle, Alan: 1989,Necessity, Essence, and Individuation, Ithaca, Cornell University Press.

  25. Smith, Quentin: 1987, ‘Problems with the New Tenseless Theory of Time’,Philosophical Studies 52, 77–98.

  26. Smith, Quentin: 1993,Language and Time, New York: Oxford University Press.

  27. Soames, Scott: 1987, ‘Direct Reference, Propositional Attitudes, and Semantic Content’,Philosophical Topics 15, 47–87.

  28. Wettstein, Howard: 1986, ‘Has Semantics Rested on a Mistake?’,The Journal of Philosophy 83, 185–209.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Smith, Q. Marcus, Kripke, and the origin of the new theory of reference. Synthese 104, 179–189 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01063869

Download citation

Keywords

  • Contingent Description
  • Rigid Designator
  • Modal Argument
  • Identity Sentence
  • Epistemic Argument