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Mutual causality in developing countries


Deviation-amplifying mutual causal systems provide a framework for the analysis of a number of problems that characterize developing countries. This paper presents several examples of such cause-effect loops and shows that the difficulty with developing countries is a “vicious circle of vicious circles” or a “system of deviation-amplifying mutual causal systems.”

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Herrscher, E.G. Mutual causality in developing countries. Systems Practice 1, 305–311 (1988).

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Key words

  • economics
  • less-developed countries (LDC)
  • should-be countries
  • mutual causal systems
  • second cybernetics