Advertisement

Systems practice

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 199–209 | Cite as

Designing educational systems: A critical systems approach

  • Wendy J. Gregory
Research Note

Conclusion

The foregoing represents a brief consideration of the role of critical systems thinking in the design of education systems. Given the inherently political nature of education systems as belief and value-building systems, it seems vital to me that a critical perspective be employed in evaluating the intended design as well as the proposed design process. Without such a critical view, designers are in danger of representing a (perhaps misinformed) single viewpoint. Furthermore, designs which have not been subjected to such a critical analysis will be of a regulative and status quo enhancing nature. Given the essence of the problems that education systems designers are trying to resolve, it is imperative that we utilize the critical systems approach in all stages of the design process.

Keywords

System Designer Design Process System Approach Education System Critical Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackoff, R. L. (1981).Creating the Corporate Future, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Banathy, B. H. (1988). Matching design methods to systems type.Syst. Res. 5, 27–34.Google Scholar
  3. Beer, S. (1979).The Heart of Enterprise, John Wiley, Chichester, UK.Google Scholar
  4. Beer, S. (1981).Brain of the Firm, 2nd ed., John Wiley, Chichester, UK.Google Scholar
  5. Beer, S. (1985).Diagnosing the System for Organizations, John Wiley, Chichester, UK.Google Scholar
  6. Bernstein, R. J. (1983).Beyond Objectivism and Relativism, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  7. Bernstein, R. J. (1991).The New Constellation, Polity Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  8. Checkland, P. B. (1981).Systems Thinking, Systems Practice, John Wiley, Chichester.Google Scholar
  9. Churchman, C. W. (1971).The Design of Inquiring Systems, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Dando, M. R., and Bennett, P. G. (1981). A Kuhnian crisis in management science?J. Operat. Res. Soc. 32, 91–103.Google Scholar
  11. Davies, L. (1990). The seduction of systems: A response to R. L. Flood's Editorial, “From Positivism to Critique.”Syst. Pract. 3, 383–388.Google Scholar
  12. Eden, C., Jones, S., and Sims, D. (1983).Messing About in Problems, Pergamon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  13. Fay, B. (1975).Social Theory and Political Practice, Unwin Hyman, London.Google Scholar
  14. Fay, B. (1987).Critical Social Science, Polity Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  15. Flood, R. L., and Jackson, M. C. (1991).Creative Problem Solving: Total Systems Intervention, Wiley, Chichester.Google Scholar
  16. Freire, P. (1972).Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Penguin, London.Google Scholar
  17. Freire, P. (1974).Education: The Practice of Freedom, Writers & Readers Publishing Cooperative, London.Google Scholar
  18. Gregory, W. J. (1993).Critical Systems Thinking and Pluralism: A New Constellation, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis.Google Scholar
  19. Habermas, J. (1972).Knowledge and Human Interests, Heinemann, London.Google Scholar
  20. Habermas, J. (1973). A postscript toKnowledge and Human Interests.Phil. Soc. Sci. 3, 157–189.Google Scholar
  21. Habermas, J. (1974).Theory and Practice, (J. Viertel, trans.), Heinemann, London.Google Scholar
  22. Habermas, J. (1979).Communication and the Evolution of Society (T. McCarthy, trans.), Heinemann, London.Google Scholar
  23. Habermas, J. (1988).On the Logic of the Social Sciences, Polity Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  24. Jackson, M. C. (1985a). Social systems theory and practice: The need for a critical approach.Int. J. Gen. Syst. 10, 135–151.Google Scholar
  25. Jackson, M. C. (1985b). Systems inquiring competence and organizational analysis.Proceedings of the 1985 Meeting of ISGSR, pp. 522–530.Google Scholar
  26. Jackson, M. C. (1987). Present positions and future prospects in management science.Omega 15(6), 455–466.Google Scholar
  27. Jackson, M. C. (1988). Systems methods for organizational analysis and design.Syst. Res. 5(3), 201–210.Google Scholar
  28. Jackson, M. C. (1989). The critical kernal in modern systems thinking.Syst. Pract. 3, 357–364.Google Scholar
  29. Jackson, M. C. (1990). Beyond a system of systems methodologies.J. Operat. Res. Soc. 41(8), 657–668.Google Scholar
  30. Jackson, M. C. (1991). The origins and nature of critical systems thinking.Syst. Pract. 4, 131–149.Google Scholar
  31. Jackson, M. C., and Keys, P. (1984). Towards a system of systems methodologies.J. Operat. Res. Soc. 35, 473–483.Google Scholar
  32. Laing, R. D., and Esterson, A. (1970).Sanity, Madness, and the Family, Penguin, Harmondsworth, UK.Google Scholar
  33. Mason, R. O., and Mitroff, I. I. (1981).Challenging Strategic Planning Assumptions, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Midgley, G. R. (1983). Flexibility as a promotable value in health education: Theoretical background. Working paper prepared for the Institute of Education, University of London, London.Google Scholar
  35. Midgley, G. R. (1992).Unity and Pluralism, Ph.D. thesis, City University, London.Google Scholar
  36. Oliga, J. C. (1988). Methodological foundations of systems methodologies.Syst. Pract. 1, 87–112.Google Scholar
  37. Postman, N., and Weingartner, C. (1969).Teaching as a Subversive Activity, Penguin, London.Google Scholar
  38. Reigeluth, C. (1990). Principles of educational systems design. 1990 AECT Convention.Google Scholar
  39. Tones, K. (1981). Affective education and health. In Crawley, D., and Williams (eds.).Health Education in Schools, Harper & Row, London.Google Scholar
  40. Ulrich, W. (1983).Critical Heuristics of Social Planning, Haupt, Berne, Switzerland.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wendy J. Gregory
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Management Systems and SciencesUniversity of HullHullUK

Personalised recommendations