Intrabulbar connections of respiratory nuclei and the medullary reticular formation and also descending pathways from these structures in the spinal cord were studied by the retrograde horseradish peroxidase axonal transport method in cats. Neurons of the nucleus ambiguus and nucleus retroambigualis (ventral respiratory group) and of the ventrolateral part of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (dorsal respiratory group) were shown to form direct two-way connections with each other and with the medial region of the medulla. Neurons of the pneumotaxic center send uncrossed axons to the nucleus ambiguus and to the medial medullary reticular formation. Neurons of the contralateral homonymous nucleus and neurons of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius are sources of projections of the locus coeruleus. A well developed system of direct connections was found between neurons of respiratory nuclei of the two halves of the brain. The possible role of these nuclear formations in genesis of the respiratory rhythm and regulation of the respiratory and other motor functions of the reticular formation is discussed.
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Yakunin, V.E., Maiskii, V.A., Preobrazhenskii, N.N. et al. Connections of brainstem respiratory nuclei studied by the retrograde horseradish peroxidase axon transport method. Neurophysiology 14, 116–124 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01060181
- Locus Coeruleus
- Medial Region
- Direct Connection
- Axon Transport
- Reticular Formation