Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Ionic mechanisms of nonlinearity of the retinal horizontal cell membrane

  • 13 Accesses

Abstract

Changes in ionic conductance lying at the basis of nonlinearity of the current-voltage characteristic curve of the cell (nonsynaptic) membrane of horizontal cells were studied in experiments on the goldfish and turtle retina. All measurements were made during blocking of synaptic transmission by bright light or Co++. An increase in the K+ concentration led to depolarization and to a reduction of the steepness of the hyperpolarization branch of the current-voltage curve, whereas a decrease in K+ had the opposite effect. Changes in the Cl or Na+ concentrations had no significant effect on membrane potential or on the shape of the current-voltage curve. The principal potential-forming ion in the horizontal cells is thus K+; conductance for Cl is absent or very low, and conductance for Na+ also is evidently small. In the presence of Ba++ (2–5 mM) the steepness of the hyperpolarization branch of the current-voltage curve was increased and the whole curve became more linear. It is concluded that nonlinearity of the current-voltage curve of the horizontal cell membrane is due mainly to potential-dependent potassium channels, whose conductance increases during hyperpolarization; this increase in conductance is blocked by Ba++. An increase in the Ca++ concentration to 20 mM led to an increase in steepness of the depolarization branch of the current-voltage curve, suggesting that depolarization increases membrane conductance for Ca++.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Literature cited

  1. 1.

    A. V. Minor and V. V. Maksimov, "Passive electrical properties of a model of a flat cell," Biofizika,14, No. 2, 328 (1969).

  2. 2.

    Yu. A. Trifonov, K. V. Golubtsov, A. L. Byzov, and L. M. Chailakhyan, "Membrane potential clamping in horizontal cells of the fish retina," Neirofiziologiya,9, No. 4, 402 (1977).

  3. 3.

    Yu. A. Trifonov and L. M. Chailakhyan, "Uniform polarization of fibers and syncytial structures by extracellular electrodes," Biofizika,20, No. 1, 107 (1975).

  4. 4.

    Yu. A. Trifonov, L. M. Chailakhyan, and A. L. Byzov, "Investigation of the nature of electrical responses of horizontal cells of the fish retina," Neirofiziologiya,3, No. 1, 89 (1971).

  5. 5.

    A. L. Byzov, Yu. A. Trifonov, L. M. Chailakhyan (Chailahian), and K. V. Golutsov (Golubtzov), "Amplification of graded potentials in horizontal cells of the retina," Vision Res.,17, No. 2, 265 (1977).

  6. 6.

    L. Cervetto and M. Piccolino, "Synaptic transmission between photoreceptors and horizontal cells in the turtle retina," Science,183, 417 (1974).

  7. 7.

    G. L. Fain, F. N. Quandt, and H. M. Gerschenfeld, "Calcium-dependent regenerative responses in rods," Nature,269, 707 (1977).

  8. 8.

    S. Hagiwara, S. Miyazaki, W. Moody, and J. Patlak, "Blocking effect of barium and hydrogen ions on the potassium current during anomalous rectification in the starfish egg," J. Physiol. (London),279, No. 1, 167 (1978).

  9. 9.

    S. Hagiwara and M. Yoshii, "Effects of internal potassium and sodium on the anomalous rectification of the starfish egg as determined by internal perfusion," J. Physiol. (London),292, No. 2, 251 (1979).

  10. 10.

    A. L. Hodgkin and P. Horowicz, "The influence of potassium and chloride ions on the membrane potential of single muscle fibres," J. Physiol. (London),148, No. 1, 127 (1959).

  11. 11.

    P. G. Kostyuk and O. A. Krishtal, "Preparation of sodium and calcium currents in the somatic membrane of mollusc neurons," J. Physiol. (London),270, No. 4, 515 (1977).

  12. 12.

    R. W. Meech, "Calcium-dependent potassium activation in nervous tissue," Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng.,7, No. 1, 1 (1978).

  13. 13.

    R. F. Miller and R. F. Dacheux, "Synaptic organization and ionic basis of on- and off-channels in the mudpuppy retina. 1. Intracellular analysis of chloride sensitive electrogenic properties of receptors, horizontal cells and amacrine cells," J. Gen. Physiol.,67, No. 6, 639 (1976).

  14. 14.

    W. Trautwein, "Membrane currents in cardiac muscle fibres," Physiol. Rev.,53, No. 4, 793 (1973).

  15. 15.

    Yu. A. Trifonov, A. L. Byzov, and L. M. Chailakhyan (Chailahian), "Electrical properties of subsynaptic and nonsynaptic membranes of horizontal cells in fish retina," Vision Res.,14, No. 3, 229 (1974).

  16. 16.

    G. Waloga and W. L. Pak, "Ionic mechanism for the generation of horizontal cell potentials in isolated axolotl retina," J. Gen. Physiol.,71, No. 1, 69 (1978).

  17. 17.

    R. S. Werblyin, "Anomalous rectification in horizontal cells," J. Physiol. (London),244, No. 3, 639 (1975).

Download references

Additional information

Institute for Problems in Information Transmission, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow. Translated from Neirofiziologiya, Vol. 13, No. 5, pp. 531–539, September–October, 1981.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Trifonov, Y.A., Byzov, A.L. & Chailakhyan, L.M. Ionic mechanisms of nonlinearity of the retinal horizontal cell membrane. Neurophysiology 13, 380–387 (1981). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01058616

Download citation

Keywords

  • Potassium
  • Cell Membrane
  • Membrane Potential
  • Opposite Effect
  • Ionic Conductance