Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Toxicity of the herbicides 2,4-D, DEF, propanil and trifluralin to the Dungeness crab,Cancer magister

Abstract

Lethal and sublethal responses to the herbicides 2,4-D, DEF®, propanil, and trifluralin of various life history stages of the Dungeness crab,Cancer magister, were examined to estimate maximum acceptable toxicant concentrations (MATC) of each compound for this species. Zoeae were found, in long term tests, to be the most sensitive stage. Based on the experiments with this stage, MATCs were concluded to be >0.95, <6.9μg for DEF, ≥26, <220μg/L for trifluralin, ≥80, < 1,700μg/L for propanil, and < 1,000μg/L for the free acid form of 2,4-D.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Armstrong, D. A., D. V. Buchanan, M. H. Mallon, R. S. Caldwell, and R. E. Millemann: Toxicity of the insecticide methoxychlor to the Dungeness crabCancer magister. Mar. Biol.38, 239 (1976).

  2. Beaven, G. F., C. K. Rawls, and G. E. Beckett: Field observations upon estuarine animals exposed to 2,4-D. Proc. No. East. Weed Contr. Conf.16, 449 (1962).

  3. Buchanan, D. V., R. E. Millemann, and N. E. Stewart: Effects of the insecticide Sevin on various stages of the Dungeness crab,Cancer magister. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada27, 93 (1970).

  4. Buchanan, D. V., M. J. Myers, and R. S. Caldwell: Improved flowing water apparatus for the culture of brachyuran crab larvae. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada32, 1880 (1975).

  5. Butler, P. A.: Effects of herbicides on estuarine fauna. Proc. So. Weed Conf.18, 576 (1965).

  6. Butler, T. H.: Growth and age determination of the Pacific edible crabCancer magister Dana. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada18, 873 (1961).

  7. Cope, O. B.: Some responses of freshwater fish to herbicides. Proc. So. Weed Conf.18, 439 (1965).

  8. Crosby, D. G., and R. K. Tucker: Toxicity of aquatic herbicides toDaphnia magna. Science154, 289 (1966).

  9. Gilderhus, P. A.: Effects of diquat on bluegills and their food organisms. Progr. Fish-Cult.29, 67 (1967).

  10. Hilsenhoff, W.: Effects of diquat on aquatic insects and related animals. J. Econ. Entomol.59, 1520 (1966).

  11. Hughes, J. S.: The toxicity to fish of different formulations of 2,4,5-T, 2(2,4-DP) and Silvex. Proc. So. Weed Conf.15, 265 (1962).

  12. Hughes, J. S., and J. T. Davis: Variations in toxicity to bluegill sunfish of phenoxy herbicides. Weeds11, 50 (1963).

  13. Liu, D. H. W., and J. M. Lee: Toxicity of selected pesticides to the bay mussel (Mytilus edulis). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Rept. EPA-660/3-75-016. Springfield, Va.: Nat. Tech. Inf. Serv. (1975).

  14. Macek, K. J., and B. H. Sleight, III. Utility of toxicity tests with embryos and fry of fish in evaluating hazards associated with the chronic toxicity of chemicals to fishes. In F. L. Mayer and J. L. Hamelink (ed.): Aquatic Toxicology and Hazard Evaluation, p. 137, Philadelphia: Am. Soc. Testing Materials (1977).

  15. Macek, K. J., C. Hutchinson, and O. B. Cope: The effects of temperature on the susceptability of bluegills and rainbow trout to selected pesticides. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.4, 174 (1969).

  16. Meehan, W. R., L. A. Norris, and H. S. Sears: Toxicity of various formulations of 2,4-D to salmonids in Southeast Alaska. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada31, 480 (1974).

  17. Mount, D. I., and C. E. Stephen: A method for establishing acceptable toxicant limits for fish. Malathion and the butoxy-ethanol ester of 2,4-D. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc.96, 185 (1967).

  18. Parka, S. J., and H. M. Worth: The effects of trifluralin to fish. Proc. So. Weed Conf.18, 469 (1965).

  19. Rawls, C. K.: Field tests of herbicide toxicity to certain estuarine animals. Chesapeake Sci.6, 150 (1965).

  20. Sanders, H. O.: Toxicity of pesticides to the crustacean,Gammarus lacustris. U.S. Bur. Sport Fish. Wildlife, Tech. Pap. 25. Washington, DC: Gov. Print. Off. (1969).

  21. Sanders, H. O.: Toxicities of some herbicides to six species of freshwater crustaceans. J. Wat. Poll. Cont. Fed.42, 1544 (1970).

  22. Sanders, H. O., and O. B. Cope: Toxicities of several pesticides to two species of cladocerans. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc.95, 165 (1966).

  23. —,—: The relative toxicities of several pesticides to naiads of three species of stoneflies. Limnol. Oceanogr.13, 112 (1968).

  24. Walsh, G. E.: Effects of herbicides on photosynthesis and growth of marine unicellular algae. Hyacinth Control J.10, 45 (1972).

Download references

Author information

Additional information

Technical Paper No. 4819, Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Caldwell, R.S., Buchanan, D.V., Armstrong, D.A. et al. Toxicity of the herbicides 2,4-D, DEF, propanil and trifluralin to the Dungeness crab,Cancer magister . Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 8, 383–396 (1979). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01056345

Download citation

Keywords

  • Toxicity
  • Waste Water
  • Water Management
  • Water Pollution
  • Acid Form