Lethal brain residues of DDE2 were determined experimentally in four species of wild birds given dietary dosage of 1,500 ppm DDE until one-half had died, then sacrificing the survivors, chemically analyzing the tissues, and comparing results in dead birds and survivors. In all species, residues of 300 to 400 ppm of DDE in the brain were considered to show increasing likelihood of death from DDE, confirming results of an earlier study with a single species. Body residues (ppm wet weight) were not diagnostic, overlapping grossly in dead birds and survivors, but averaging higher in survivors. Body residues (ppm lipid base), however, were higher in dead birds and did not overlap those in survivors.
Loss rate was followed in grackles fed 1,500 ppm DDE for 7 days, then given untreated feed and sacrificed at intervals of 7, 28, 56, and 112 days. DDE was lost slowly from the bodies, at a rate of 0.30% per day (estimated half-life 229 days). DDE was lost more rapidly from brains, half of the initial concentration being reached in 25 days; concentrations in brains increased thereafter in close correlation with percentage of fat in the body.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Bailey, S., P. J. Bunyan, B. D. Rennison, and A. Taylor: The metabolism of l,l-di(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1-di(p-chlorophenyl)-2-chloroethylene in the pigeon. Toxicol Appl. Pharmacol.14, 23 (1969).
Barbehenn, K. R., and W. L. Reichel: Organochlorine concentrations in bald eagles: brain/body lipid relations and hazard evaluation. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health8, 325 (1981).
Clark, D. R., Jr.: Bats and environmental contaminants: A review. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Spec. Sci. Re.-Wildl. No. 235, pp. 1–27 (1981a).
—: Death in bats from DDE, DDT, or dieldrin: diagnosis via residues in carcass fat. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.26, 367 (1981b).
Clark, D. R., Jr., and J. C. Kroll: Effects of DDE on experimentally poisoned free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis): Lethal brain concentrations. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health3, 893 (1977).
Clark, D. R., Jr., and C. J. Stafford: Effects of DDE and PCB (Aroclor® 1260) on experimentally poisoned female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus): lethal brain concentrations. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health7, 925 (1981).
Fleming, W. J., and E. Cromartie: DDE residues in young wood ducks (Aix sponsa) near a former DDT manufacturing plant. Pestic. Monit. J.14, (1981).
Fleming, W. J., and T. J. O'Shea: Influence of a local source of DDT pollution on statewide DDT residues in waterfowl wings, northern Alabama, 1978–79. Pestic. Monit. J.14, 86 (1980).
Haegele, M. A., and R. H. Hudson: Eggshell thinning and residues in mallards one year after DDE exposure. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.2, 356 (1974).
Longcore, J. R., and R. C. Stendell: Shell thinning and reproductive impairment in black ducks after cessation of DDE dosage. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.6, 293 (1977).
Ohlendorf, H. M., D. M. Swineford, and L. N. Locke: Organochlorine poisoning of herons. Proc. Colonial Waterbird Group3, 176 (1979).
Peakall, D. B., D. S. Miller, and W. B. Kintner: Prolonged egg-shell thinning caused by DDE in the duck. Nature254, 421 (1975).
Stickel, L. F., W. H. Stickel, R. D. McArthur, and D. L. Hughes: Chlordane in birds: A study of lethal residues and loss rates. In W. B. Deichmann (organizer): Toxicology and Occupational Medicine, p. 387. New York: Elsevier/North Holland (1979).
Stickel, W. H., J. A. Galyen, R. A. Dyrland, and D. L. Hughes: Toxicity and persistence of mirex in birds. In W. P. Deichmann (ed.): Pesticides and the environment: A continuing controversy, p. 437. New York: Intercontinental Medical Book Corp. (1973).
Stickel, W. H., L. F. Stickel, and F. B. Coon: DDE and DDD residues correlated with mortality of experimental birds. In W. P. Deichmann (ed.): Pesticides Symposia, p. 287. Miami: Halos and Assoc. (1970).
White, D. H., C. A. Mitchell, H. D. Kennedy, and A. J. Krynitsky: Elevated DDE and toxaphene residues in fishes and birds reflect local contamination in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Southwestern Nat. In press (1983).
Wiemeyer, S. N., and E. Cromartie: Relationships between brain and carcass Organochlorine residues in ospreys. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.27, 499 (1981).
About this article
Cite this article
Stickel, W.H., Stickel, L.F., Dyrland, R.A. et al. DDE in birds: Lethal residues and loss rates. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 13, 1–6 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01055640
- Waste Water
- Water Management
- Water Pollution
- Loss Rate