Behavioral indicators of sublethal toxicity in rainbow trout

  • Edward E. Little
  • Richard D. Archeski
  • Boris A. Flerov
  • Vera I. Kozlovskaya
Article

Abstract

Four measures of behavior-spontaneous swimming activity, swimming capacity, feeding behavior, and vulnerability to predation-were assessed as indicators of sublethal toxicity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in 96-hr exposures to sublethal concentrations of six agricultural chemicals: carbaryl, chlordane, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-DMA), tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DBF 1), methyl parathion, and pentachlorophenol. After exposures, behavioral changes consistently demonstrated sublethal toxicity, but effects on specific behaviors varied with contaminants and their concentrations were altered by the water quality criterion concentration for chlordane (2 μg/L), and at a concentration of DEF (5 μg/L) that had previously been shown to inhibit growth and survival after a 90-day exposure. Feeding behavior was inhibited most by exposure to DEF, 2,4-DMA, and methyl parathion. Vulnerability to predation was heightened most by exposure to carbaryl and pentachlorophenol. Although all chemicals inhibited spontaneous swimming activity, only carbaryl, DEF, and 2,4-DMA influenced swimming capacity.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Atchison GJ, Henry MG, Sandheinrich MB (1987) Effects of metals on fish behavior: A review. Environ Biol Fishes 18:11–25Google Scholar
  2. Brett JR (1971) Energetic response of salmon to temperature. A study of some thermal relations in the physiology and fresh-water ecology of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Am Zool 11:99–113Google Scholar
  3. Brown JA, Johansen PH, Colgan PW, Mathers RA (1987) Impairment of early feeding behavior of largemouth bass by pentachlorophenol exposure: A preliminary assessment. Trans Am Fish Soc 116:71–78Google Scholar
  4. — (1985) Changes in the predator-avoidance behavior of juvenile guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to pentachlorophenol. Can J Zool 63:2001–2005Google Scholar
  5. Bull CJ, McInerney JE (1974) Behavior of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) exposed to Sumithion® (fenitrothion), an organophosphate insecticide. J Fish Res Board Can 31:1867–1872Google Scholar
  6. Cleveland L, Hamilton SJ (1983) Toxicity of the organophosphorous defoliant DEF to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Aquat Toxicol 4:341–355Google Scholar
  7. Cleveland L, Little EE, Hamilton SJ, Buckler DR, Hunn JB (1986) Interactive toxicity of aluminum and acidity to early life stages of brook trout. Trans Am Fish Soc 115:610–620Google Scholar
  8. Cleveland L, Buckler DR, Mayer FL, Branson DR (1982) Toxicity of three preparations of pentachlorophenol to fathead minnows — A comparative study. Environ Toxicol Chem 1:205–212Google Scholar
  9. Drummond RA, Spoor WA, Olsen GF (1973) Some short-term indicators of sublethal effects of copper on brook trout,Salvelinus fontinalis. J Fish Res Board Can 30:698–701Google Scholar
  10. Eichelberger JW, Lichtenberg JJ (1971) Persistence of pesticides in river water. Environ Sci Technol 5:541–544Google Scholar
  11. Ellgaard EG, Ochsner JC, Cox JK (1977) Locomotor hyperactivity induced in bluegill sunfish,Lepomis macrochirus, by sublethal concentrations of DDT. Can Zool 55:1077–1081Google Scholar
  12. Environmental Protection Agency (1980) Ambient water quality criteria for chlordane. US Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 440/5-80-027, Washington, DC, 54 ppGoogle Scholar
  13. Farr JA (1977) Impairment of antipredator behavior inPalaemonetes pugio by exposure to sublethal doses of parathion. Trans Am Fish Soc 106:287–290Google Scholar
  14. Finger SE, Little EE, Henry MG, Fairchild JF, Boyle TP (1985) Comparison of laboratory and field assessment of fluorene—Part 1: Effects of fluorene on the survival, growth reproduction, and behavior of aquatic organisms in laboratory tests.In: Boyle TP (ed) Validation and predictability of laboratory methods for assessing the fate and effects of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. ASTM STP 865, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp 120–133Google Scholar
  15. Goodyear CP (1972) A simple technique for detecting effects of toxicants or other stresses on a predator-prey interaction. Trans Am Fish Soc 101:367–370Google Scholar
  16. Hamilton SJ, Cleveland L, Smith LM, Lebo JA, Mayer FL (1986) Toxicity of pure pentachlorophenol and chlorinated phenoxyphenol impurities to fathead minnows. Environ Toxicol Chem 5:543–552Google Scholar
  17. Johnson WW, Finley MT (1980) Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates. U.S. Fish Wildl Serv Resour Publ 137, Washington, DC, 97 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. Laurence GC (1972) Comparative swimming abilities of fed and starved larval largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). J Fish Biol 4:73–78Google Scholar
  19. Little EE, Flerov BA, Ruzhinskaya NN (1985) Behavioral approaches in aquatic toxicity: A review. In: Mehrle PM, Gray RH, Kendall RL (eds) Toxic substances in the aquatic environment: An international perspective. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD, pp 72–98Google Scholar
  20. Mehrle PM, Buckler DR, Little EE, Smith LM, Petty JD, Peterman PH, Stalling DL, DeGraeve GM, Coyle JJ, Adams WJ (1988) Toxicity and bioconcentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in rainbow trout. Environ Toxicol Chem 7:47–62Google Scholar
  21. Oliver JD, Holeton GD, Chua KE (1979) Overwintering mortality of fingerling smallmouth bass in relation to size, relative energy stores and environmental temperature. Trans Am Fish Soc 108:130–136Google Scholar
  22. Peterson RH (1974) Influence of fenitrothion on swimming velocities of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). J Fish Res Board Can 31:1757–1762Google Scholar
  23. Post G, Leasure RH (1974) Sublethal effect of malathion to three salmonid species. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 12:312–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Sandheinrich MB, Atchison GJ (1988) Sublethal copper effects on bluegillLepomis macrochirus foraging behavior. Can J Fish Aquat Sci (in press)Google Scholar
  25. Sprague JB (1971) Measurements of pollutant toxicity to fish. III. Sublethal effects and “safe” concentrations. Water Res 5:246–266Google Scholar
  26. Steele CW (1983) Effects of exposure to sublethal copper on the locomotor behavior of the sea catfish,Arius felis. Aquat Toxicol 4:83–93Google Scholar
  27. Weis P, Weis JS (1974) Schooling behavior ofMenidia menidia in the presence of the insecticide Sevin® (carbaryl). Mar Biol 28:261–263Google Scholar
  28. Werner EE, Hall DJ (1974) Optimal foraging and the size selection of prey by the bluegill sunfish, (Lepomis macrochirus). Ecology 55:1042–1052Google Scholar
  29. Woodward DF, Little EE, Smith LM (1987) Toxicity of five shale oils to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 16:239–246PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward E. Little
    • 1
  • Richard D. Archeski
    • 1
  • Boris A. Flerov
    • 2
  • Vera I. Kozlovskaya
    • 2
  1. 1.National Fisheries Contaminant Research CenterU.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Biology of Inland WatersAcademy of Science USSRBorok, NekouzUSSR

Personalised recommendations