Fertilizer research

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 249–255 | Cite as

Crop response to level of water-soluble zinc in granular zinc fertilizers

  • J. J. Mortvedt
Article

Abstract

Many industrial by-products containing Zn are being processed and sold as Zn fertilizers. Some baghouse dusts and flue dusts which contain ZnO may be used as fertilizers or may be partially acidulated with H2SO4 to form Zn oxysulfates (various mixtures of ZnO and ZnSO4). Spent H2SO4 by-products of several industries, especially the galvanizing industry, also may be processed into ZnSO4 fertilizers. The level of water-soluble Zn (as a percentage of total Zn) in these fertilizers is mainly related to the relative contents of ZnSO4 (water soluble) and ZnO (water insoluble). Other published results have shown that availability to plants of most nutrients in a granular fertilizer is related to their water solubility.

Response of corn (Zea mays L.) to fine and granular Zn fertilizers varying in level of water-soluble Zn was determined on a limed Zn-deficient Crowley silt loam (Typic Albaqualf) in three greenhouse pot experiments. Dry matter production and Zn uptake by corn were similar with several finely ground (<0.15 mm) Zn fertilizers varying from 0 to 100% of their total Zn in water-soluble form.

Crop response to granular (1.7 to 2.4 mm, ×8 + 12 mesh) Zn fertilizers increased with level of water-soluble Zn in several ZnSO4 fertilizers made from spent acids, Zn oxysulfates, and ZnO by-product fertilizers. Corn dry matter production and Zn uptake were significantly lower with fertilizers containing <40% water-soluble Zn. Crop response to granular mixtures varying in proportion of reagent grade ZnSO4 and ZnO gave similar results in two experiments. These results show that at least 40% of the total Zn in granular Zn fertilizers should be in water-soluble form to be fully effective for crops.

Key words

corn granule size industrial by-products micronutrients 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Allen SE and Terman GL (1966) Response of maize and sudangrass to zinc in granular micronutrients. Trans Comm II and IV: 255–266. Aberdeen, Scotland: International Soil Science SocietyGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anonymous (1968) Commercial fertilizers: Consumption for year ended June 30, 1968. Washington, DC, USDA, Crop Reporting Board, Statistical Reporting ServiceGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anonymous (1984) Commercial fertilizers: Consumption for year ended June 30, 1984. Washington, DC, USDA, Crop Reporting Board, Statistical Reporting ServiceGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boawn LC, Viets Jr. F, and Crawford CL (1957) Plant utilization of zinc from various types of zinc compounds and fertilizer materials. Soil Sci 83: 219–229Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Engelstad OP (1968) Use of multiple regression in fertilizer evaluation. Agron J 60: 327–329Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Engelstad OP (1980) Agronomic effectiveness of phosphate fertilizers. In: Khasawneh FEet al. (ed) The Role of Phosphorus in Agriculture, pp 311–332. Madison, Wisc: American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of AmericaGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Giordano PM and Mortvedt JJ (1969) Response of several corn hybrids to level of water-soluble zinc in fertilizers. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 33: 145–148Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jackson WA, Heinly NA and Caro JH (1962) Soluble status of zinc carriers intermixed with N-P-K fertilizers. J Agr Food Chem 10: 361–364Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lindsay WL and Norvell WA (1978) Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, manganese, and copper. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42: 421–428Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Martens DC and Westerman DT (1991) Fertilizer applications for correcting micronutrient deficiencies. In: Mortvedt JJet al. (ed) Micronutrients in Agriculture, second edn, pp 549–592. Madison, Wisc: Soil Science Society of AmericaGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Miner GS, Traore S and Tucker MR (1986) Corn response to starter fertilizer acidity and manganese materials varying in water solubility. Agron J 79: 291–295Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mortvedt JJ (1968) Crop response to applied zinc in ammoniated phosphate fertilizers. J Agr Food Chem 16: 241–245Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mortvedt JJ (1985) Plant uptake of heavy metals in zinc fertilizers made from industrial by-products. J Environ Qual 14: 424–427Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mortvedt JJ (1991) Micronutrient fertilizer technology. In: Mortvedt JJet al. (ed) Micronutrients in Agriculture, second edn, pp 523–548. Madison, Wisc: Soil Science Society of AmericaGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mortvedt JJ and Kelsoe JJ (1988) Crop response to fine and granular magnesium fertilizers. Fert Res 15: 155–161Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Webb JR and Pesek JT (1959) An evaluation of phosphorus fertilizers varying in water solubility. II Broadcast applications for corn. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 23: 381–384Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. J. Mortvedt
    • 1
  1. 1.National Fertilizer and Environmental Research CenterTennessee Valley AuthorityMuscle ShoalsUSA

Personalised recommendations